Ancient country located in what is now southwestern
Iran, at the head of the
Persian Gulf and east of ancient
Babylonia; its capital was
Shoosh). It had close cultural ties to
Mesopotamia and was in conflict with the Sumerians and
Akkadians from around 3000 BC.
Elam had been under the domination of Akkad since the time of Sargon. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte was king of Elam from about 1185 to 1155 BC. Under his command, Elam defeated the Kassites and established the first
Elamite Empire, which proved to be very short-lived as
Nebu Chadnezzar I of
Babylon conquered Elam around 1120 BC, bringing the empire to an end. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte was married to a Babylonian princess, the daughter of a kassitian King named Meli-Schipak.
In the 13th century BC, Elam became a dominant power that included most of Mesopotamia east of the
Tigris and reached almost to
Persepolis. Its domination ended when Nebuchadrezzar I of Babylon captured Susa and destroyed it. Elam became a satrapy of the
Achaemenid dynasty, and Susa became one of its three capitals.
Situated just to the east of Mesopotamia, Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Mesopotamian history where writing was used slightly earlier. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the
Iranian plateau, centered in
Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the
Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire, especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. The Elamite language is generally treated as an isolate language.
Knowledge of the Elamite history remains largely fragmentary, reconstruction being based on mainly Mesopotamian (Sumerian, Akkadian,
Assyrian and Babylonian) sources. The history of Elam is conventionally divided into three periods, spanning more than two millennia. The period before the first Elamite period is known as the proto-Elamite period:
Proto-Elamite: c. 3200 BC – 2700 BC (Proto-Elamite script in Susa)
-Old Elamite period: c. 2700 BC – 1600 BC (earliest documents until the Eparti
-Middle Elamite period: c. 1500 BC – 1100 BC (Anzanite Dynasty until the Babylonian invasion of Susa)
-Neo-Elamite period: c. 1100 BC – 539 BC (characterized
Assyrian and Median influence. 539 BC marks the beginning of the Achaemenid period)
Proto-Elamite civilization grew up east of the Tigris and
Euphrates river valley; it was a combination of the lowlands and the immediate highland areas to the north and east. At least three proto-Elamite states merged to form Elam: Anshan (modern
Fars), Awan (probably modern
Lorestan), and Shimashki (modern
Kerman). References to Awan are generally older than those to Anshan, suggesting that both states encompassed the same territory, in different eras. To this core Shushiana (modern Khuzestan) was periodically annexed and broken off. In addition, some Proto-Elamite sites are found well outside this area, spread out on the Iranian plateau; such as Warakshe, Sialk (now a suburb of the modern city of
Jiroft in Kerman Province. The state of Elam was formed from these lesser states as a response to invasion from Sumer during the Old Elamite period. Elamite strength was based on an ability to hold these various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of the natural resources unique to each region. Traditionally, this was done through a federated governmental structure.
The Proto-Elamite city of Susa was founded around 4000 BC in the watershed of the
Karun River. It is considered to be the site of Proto-Elamite cultural formation. During its early history, it fluctuated between submission to Mesopotamian and Elamite power. The earliest levels in the excavations exhibit pottery that has no equivalent in Mesopotamia, but for the succeeding period, the excavated material allows identification with the culture of Sumer of the Uruk period. Proto-Elamite influence from the
Persian plateau in Susa becomes visible from about 3200 BC, and texts in the still un-deciphered Proto-Elamite writing system continue to be present until about 2700 BC. The Proto-Elamite period ends with the establishment of the Awan dynasty. The earliest known historical figure connected with Elam is the king Enmebaragesi of
Kish (c. 2650 BC?), who subdued it, according to the Sumerian king list. Elamite history can only be traced from records dating to beginning of the Akkadian Empire in around 2300 BC onwards.
The Proto-Elamite states in Jiroft and Zabol, present a special case because of their great antiquity. Archaeologists have suggested that a close relationship between the Jiroft Civilization and the Elamite Civilization is evidenced by striking similarities in art and culture, as well as by Elamite language writings found in Jiroft—possibly extending the Elamite presence to as early as 7000 BC.
2-Old Elamite Period
The Old Elamite period began around 2700 BC. Historical records mention the conquest of Elam by Enmebaragesi the Sumerian king of Kish. Three dynasties ruled during this period. We know of twelve kings of each of the first two dynasties, those of Awan (or Avan; c. 2400–2100 BC) and Simash (c. 2100–1970 BC), from a list from Susa dating to the Old Babylonian period. Two Elamite dynasties said to have exercised brief control over parts of Sumer in very early times include Awan and Hamazi; and likewise, several of the stronger Sumerian rulers, such as Eannatum of Lagash and Lugal-anne-mundu of Adab, are recorded as temporarily dominating Elam.
The Avan dynasty was partly contemporary with that of Sargon of Akkad, who not only defeated the Awan king Luhi-ishan and subjected Susa, but attempted to make Akkadian the official language there. From this time, Mesopotamian sources concerning Elam become more frequent, since the Mesopotamians had developed an interest in resources (such as wood, stone, and metal) from the Iranian plateau, and military expeditions to the area became more common.
With the collapse of Akkad under Sargon's great-grandson, Shar-kali-sharri, Elam declared independence under the last Avan king, Kutik-Inshushinak (c. 2240–2220 BC), and threw off the Akkadian language, promoting in its place the brief Linear Elamite script.
Kutik-Inshushinnak conquered Susa and Anshan, and seems to have achieved some sort of political unity. Following his reign, the Awan dynasty collapsed as Elam was temporarily overrun by the Guti.
About a century later, the Sumerian king, Shulgi of Ur retook the city of Susa and the surrounding region. During the first part of the rule of the Simashki dynasty, Elam was under intermittent attack from Mesopotamians and Gutians, alternating with periods of peace and diplomatic approaches. Shu-Sin of Ur, for example, gave one of his daughters in marriage to a prince of Anshan. But the power of the Sumerians was waning; Ibbi-Sin in the 21st century did not manage to penetrate far into Elam, and in 2004 BC, the Elamites, allied with the people of Susa and led by king Kindattu, the sixth king of Simashk, managed to sack Ur and lead Ibbi-Sin into captivity—thus ending the third dynasty of Ur. The kings of Isin, successor state to Ur, did manage to drive the Elamites out of Ur, rebuild the city, and to return the statue of Nanna that the Elamites had taken.
The succeeding dynasty, the Eparti (c. 1970–1770 BC), also called "of the sukkalmahs" because of the title borne by its members, was contemporary with the Old Babylonian period in Mesopotamia. This period is confusing and difficult to reconstruct. It was apparently founded by Eparti I. During this time, Susa was under Elamite control, but Mesopotamian states such as Larsa continually tried to retake the city. Around 1850 BC Kudur-mabug, apparently king of another Sumerian state to the north of Larsa, managed to install his son, Warad-Sin, on the throne of Larsa, and Warad-Sin's brother, Rim-Sin, succeeded him and conquered much of Mesopotamia for Larsa.
Notable Eparti dynasty rulers in Elam during this time include Sirukdukh (c. 1850 BC), who entered various military coalitions to contain the rising power of Babylon; Siwe-Palar-Khuppak, who for some time was the most powerful person in the area, respectfully addressed as "Father" by Mesopotamian kings such as Zimrilim of Mari, and even Hammurabi of Babylon, and Kudur-Nahhunte, who plundered the temples of Akkad. But Elamite influence in Mesopotamia did not last. Around 1760 BC, Hammurabi drove out the Elamites, overthrew Rim-Sin of Larsa, and established Babylonian dominance in Mesopotamia.
Little is known about the latter part of this dynasty, since sources again become sparse with the Kassite rule of Babylon (from c. 1595 BC).
3-Middle Elamite Period
Anshan and Susa
The Middle Elamite period began with the rise of the Anshanite dynasties around 1500 BC. Their rule was characterized by an Elimination of Susa, and the kings took the title: king of Anshan and Susa. While the first of these dynasties, the Kidinuids continued to use the Akkadian language frequently in their inscriptions, the succeeding Igihalkids and Shutrukids used Elamite with increasing regularity. Likewise, Elamite language and culture grew in importance in
The Kidinuids (c. 1500–1400) were a group of five rulers of uncertain affiliation. They are identified by their use of the older title, "king of Susa and of Anshan", and by calling themselves "servant of Kirwashir", an Elamite deity, thereby introducing the pantheon of the highlands to Susiana.
Of the Igehalkids (c. 1400–1210), ten rulers are known, and there were possibly more. Some of them married Kassite princesses. The Kassite king of Babylon Kurigalzu II temporarily occupied Elam c. 1320 BC, and later (c. 1230) another Kassite king, Kashtiliash IV, fought Elam unsuccessfully. Kiddin-Khutran I of Elam repulsed the Kassites by defeating Enlil-nadin-shumi in 1224 and Adad-shuma-iddina around 1222–1217. Under the Igehalkids, Akkadian inscriptions were rare, and Elamite highland gods became firmly established in Susa.
Under the Shutrukids (c. 1210–1100), the Elamite Empire reached the height of its power. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte and his three sons, Kutir-Nakhkhunte II, Shilhak-In-Shushinak, and Khutelutush-In-Shushinak were capable of frequent military campaigns into Kassite Babylonia, and at the same time were exhibiting vigorous construction activity—building and restoring luxurious temples in Susa and across their Empire. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte raided Babylonia, carrying home to Susa trophies like the statues of Marduk and Manishtushu, the Manishtushu Obelisk, the Stele of Hammurabi and the stela of Naram-Sin.
In 1158 BC, Shutruk-Nakhkhunte defeated the Kassites permanently, killing the Kassite king of Babylon, Zababa-shuma-iddina, and replacing him with his eldest son, Kutir-Nakhkhunte, who held it no more than three years.
Kutir-Nakhkhunte's son Khutelutush-In-Shushinak was probably of an incestuous relation of Kutir-Nakhkhunte's with his own daughter, Nakhkhunte-utu. He was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon, who sacked Susa and returned the statue of Marduk. He fled to Anshan, but later returned to Susa, and his brother Shilhana-Hamru-Lagamar may have succeeded him as last king of the Shutrukid dynasty. Following Khutelutush-In-Shushinak, the power of the Elamite empire began to wane seriously, for with this ruler, Elam disappears into obscurity for more than three centuries.
4.1- Neo-Elamite I (c. 1100–770)
Very little is known of this period. Anshan was still at least partially Elamite. There appear to have been alliances of Elam and Babylonia against the powerful Assyrians; the Babylonian king Mar-biti-apla-ushur (984–979) was of Elamite origin, and Elamites are recorded to have fought unsuccessfully with the Babylonian king Marduk-balassu-iqbi against the Assyrian forces under Shamshi-Adad V (823–811).
Neo-Elamite II (c. 770–646)
The later Neo-Elamite period is characterized by a significant migration of Iranians to the Iranian plateau. Assyrian sources beginning around 800 BC distinguish the "powerful
Medes", i.e. the actual Medes, (
Parthians, Sagartians, Margians, Bactrians, Sogdians etc.). Among these pressuring tribes were the Parsu, first recorded in 844 BC as living on the southeastern shore of
Urmia Lake, but who by the end of this period would cause the Elamites' original home, the Iranian
Plateau, to be renamed
Persia proper. These newly arrived Iranian peoples were largely regarded as vassals of the Neo Assyrian Empire until the late 7th Century BC.
More details are known from the late 8th century BC, when the Elamites were allied with the Chaldean chieftain Merodach-baladan to defend the cause of Babylonian independence from Assyria. Khumbanigash (743–717) supported Merodach-baladan against Sargon II, apparently without success; while his successor, Shutruk-Nakhkhunte II (716–699), was routed by Sargon's troops during an expedition in 710, and another Elamite defeat by Sargon's troops is recorded for 708. The Assyrian dominion over Babylon was underlined by Sargon's son Sennacherib, who defeated the Elamites and Babylonians and dethroned Merodach-baladan for a second time, finally installing his own son
Ashur-nadin-shumi on the Babylonian throne in 700.
Shutruk-Nakhkhunte II, the last Elamite to claim the old title: king of Anshan and Susa, was murdered by his brother Khallushu, who managed to capture the Assyrian governor of Babylonia Ashur-nadin-shumi and the city Babylon in 694. Sennacherib avenged this by ravaging Elam in 694 BC. Khallushu was in turn assassinated by Kutir-Nakhkhunte, who succeeded him, but soon abdicated in favor of Khumma-Menanu III (692–689). Khumma-Menanu recruited a new army to help the Babylonians against the Assyrians at the battle of Halule in 691 BC. Both sides claimed the victory in their annals, but Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib only two years later, and their Elamite allies defeated in the process.
The reigns of Khumma-Khaldash I (688–681) and Khumma-Khaldash II (680–675) saw a deterioration of Elamite-Babylonian relations, and both of them raided
Sippar. At the beginning of
Esarhaddon's reign in Assyria (681–669),
Nabu-zer-kitti-lišir, an ethnically Elamite governor in the south of Babylonia, revolted and besieged Ur, but was routed by the Assyrians fled to Elam where the king of Elam, fearing Assyrian repercussions, took him prisoner and put him to the sword.
Urtaku (674–664) for some time maintained good relations with
Ashur Banipal (668–627), who sent wheat to Susiana during a famine. But these friendly relations were only temporary, and Urtaku was killed in battle during a failed Elamite attack on Assyria.
His successor Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak (664–653) attacked Assyria, but was defeated and killed by Ashur Banipal following the battle of the Ulaï in 653 BC; and Susa was sacked and occupied by the Assyrians. In this same year the Assyrian vassal Mede state to the north fell to the Scythians under Madius, immediately displacing another Assyrian vassal people, the Parsu (Persian) tribe to Anshan which their king Teispes captured that same year, turning it for the first time into an Indo-Iranian kingdom under Assyrian dominance that would a century later become the nucleus of the Achaemenid dynasty. The Assyrians successfully drove the Scythians from their Iranian colonies.
During a brief respite provided by the civil war between Ashurbanipal and his brother Shamash-shum-ukin, the Elamites too indulged in fighting among themselves, so weakening the Elamite kingdom that in 646 BC Ashurbanipal devastated Susiana with ease, and sacked Susa. A succession of brief reigns continued in Elam from 651 to 640, each of them ended either due to usurpation or because of capture of their king by the Assyrians. In this manner, the last Elamite king, Khumma-Khaldash III, was captured in 640 BC by Ashurbanipal, who annexed and destroyed the country.
In a tablet unearthed in 1854, Ashur Banipal boasts of the destruction he had wrought:
“ Susa, the great holy city, abode of their Gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed…I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur. I devastated the provinces of Elam and on their lands I sowed salt. ”
Neo-Elamite III (646–539)
The devastation was less complete than Assurbanipal boasted, and a fragmented Elamite rule was resurrected soon after with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte III (not to be confused with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of Indada, a petty king in the first half of the 6th century). Elamite royalty in the final century preceding the Achaemenid was fragmented among different small kingdoms, the united Elamite nation having been destroyed by the Assyrians. The three kings at the close of the 7th century (Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, Khallutush-In-Shushinak and Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak ) still called themselves king of Anshan and of Susa or enlarger of the kingdom of Anshan and of Susa, at a time when the Achaemenid were already ruling Anshan. Their successors Khumma-Menanu and Shilhak-In-Shushinak II bore the simple title "king", and the final king Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak boasted no title altogether. In 540 BC, Achaemenid rule begins in Susa.
The following cities were annexed to the Elamite federation:
The Elamites practiced polytheism. Knowledge about their religion is scant, but at one point they had a pantheon of gods headed by the god Khumban. Other deities included the goddess Kiririsha and the gods Inshushinak and Jabru.
There is a mention of Susha as a beautiful city of Varuna in Matsya Purana. Moreover, in Rig Veda it is mentioned that Sage Vasishta visited by sea a great thousand gated temple of Varuna (called Susha). Some scholars believe that there was a cultural and religious exchange between Elam and
Elamite has traditionally been thought a Language Isolate, and completely unrelated to the neighboring
Semitic, Sumerian, and the later Iranian languages that came to dominate the region. It was written in a cuneiform adapted from the Semitic Akkadian script, although the very earliest documents were written in the quite different "Linear Elamite" script. In 2006, two even older inscriptions in a similar script were discovered at Jiroft to the east, leading archaeologists to speculate that Linear Elamite had spread from there to Susa. It seems to have developed from an even earlier writing known as "proto-Elamite", but scholars are not unanimous on whether or not this script was used to write Elamite or another language, and it has not yet been deciphered. Several stages of the language are attested; the earliest date back to the third millennium BC, the latest to the
The Elamite language may have survived as late as the early
Ibn al-Nadim among other Islamic medieval historians, for instance, wrote that "The Iranian languages are Fahlavi (
Pahlavi), Dari, Khuzi, Persian and Suryani (Assyrian/Syriac)", and Ibn Moqaffa noted that Khuzi was the unofficial language of the royalty of Persia, "Khuz" being the corrupted name for Elam.
Suggested relations to other language families
Some scholars have proposed that the Elamite language could be related to the Munda Language of India, some to Mon–Khmer and some to Dravidian languages, in contrast to those who denote it as a language isolate. David McAlpine believes Elamite may be related to the living Dravidian languages. The hypothesis is considered under the rubric of Elamo-Dravidian languages.
The Assyrians had utterly destroyed the Elamite nation, but new polities emerged in the area after Assyrian power faded. Among the nations that benefited from the decline of the Assyrians were the Iranian tribes, whose presence around Lake
Urmia to the north of Elam is attested from the 9th century BC in Assyrian texts. Sometime after that region fell to Madius the Scythian (653 BC), Teispes son of
Achaemenes conquered Elamite Anshan in the mid 7th century BC, forming a nucleus that would expand into the Persian Empire. They were largely regarded as vassals of the Assyrians, and the Medes, Mannaeans and Persians paid tribute to Assyria from the 10th century BC until the death of Ashur Banipal in 627 BC. After his death the Medes played a major role in the destruction of the weakened Assyrian Empire in 612 BC.
The rise of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC brought an end to the existence of Elam as an independent political power but not as a cultural entity. Indigenous Elamite traditions, such as the use of the title: king of Anshan by
Cyrus the Great; the Elamite robe worn by
Cambyses I of Anshan and seen on the famous winged genii at
Pasargadae; some glyptic styles; the use of Elamite as the first of three official languages of the empire used in thousands of administrative texts found at
Dariush’ city of Persepolis; the continued worship of Elamite deities; and the persistence of Elamite religious personnel and cults supported by the crown, formed an essential part of the newly emerging Achaemenid culture in Persian Iran. The Elamites thus became the conduit by which achievements of the Mesopotamian civilizations were introduced to the tribes of the Iranian plateau.
Conversely, Elamites had "absorbed Iranian influences in both structure and vocabulary" by 500 BC, suggesting a form of cultural continuity or fusion connecting the Elamite and the Persian periods.
The name of "Elam" survived into the Hellenistic period and beyond. In its
Greek form, Elymais, it emerges as designating a semi-independent state under Parthian suzerainty during the 2nd century BC to the early 3rd century AD. In Acts 2:8-9 in the New Testament, the language of the Elamitēs is one of the languages heard at the Pentecost. From 410 onwards Elam (Beth Huzaye) was the senior metropolitan province of the Church of the East, surviving into the 14th century.
- Elam (
Ilam) is today a province of Iran.
Wikipedia) - Elam was an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Elam was centered in the far west and the southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province, as well as a small part of southern
Iraq. The modern name Elam is a transcription from Biblical
Hebrew, corresponding to the Sumerian elam(a), the Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the ancient near east. Situated just to the east of Mesopotamia, Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Mesopotamian history where writing was used slightly earlier. In the Old Elamite period, Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire, especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. The Elamite language is generally treated as an isolate language. Elam For other uses, see Elam (disambiguation).
History of Iran
|Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 BCE |
|Elam 2700–539 BCE |
|Mannaeans 850–616 BCE |
|Median Empire 678–550 BCE |
| (Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BCE) |
|Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE |
|Seleucid Empire 312–63 BCE |
|Parthian Empire 247 BCE – 224 CE |
|Sassanid Empire 224–651 |
|MIDDLE AGES |
|Umayyad Caliphate 661–750 |
|Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258 |
|Ziyarid Dynasty 928–1043 ||Saffarid Dynasty 867–1002 |
|Buyid Dynasty 934–1055 ||Samanid Dynasty 875–999 |
|Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186 |
|Great Seljuq Empire 1037–1194 |
|Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231 |
|Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335 |
|Chobanid Dynasty 1335–1357 ||Muzaffarid Dynasty 1335–1393 |
|Jalayirid Dynasty 1336–1432 ||Sarbadars 1337–1376 |
|Timurid Empire 1370–1405 |
|Qara Qoyunlu 1406–1468 ||Timurid Dynasty 1405–1507 |
|Agh Qoyunlu 1468–1508 |
|EARLY MODERN |
|Safavid Empire 1501–1736 |
| (Hotaki Dynasty 1722–1729) |
|Afsharid Empire 1736–1747 |
|Zand Dynasty 1760–1794 ||Afsharid Dynasty 1747–1796 |
|Qajar Empire 1796–1925 |
|Pahlavi Dynasty 1925–1979 |
|Interim Government 1979–1980 |
|Islamic Republic 1980–present |
|Related articles |
Timeline of Iranian history Economic history Education history Military history Naval history
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Elam (Persian: عیلام) was an ancient civilization centered in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan (Persian: خوزستان) and Ilam Province (Persian: عیلام), as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam is a transcription from Biblical Hebrew, corresponding to the Sumerian elam(a), the Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the ancient near east. In classical literature, Elam was more often referred to as Susiana, a name derived from its capital, Susa.
Situated just to the east of Mesopotamia, Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Mesopotamian history, where slightly earlier records have been found. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role in the short lived Gutian Empire of the 22nd century BC, and from the 6th century BC, during the Persian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded Elam, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. Elamite is generally accepted to be a language isolate.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Proto-Elamite
- 2.2 Old Elamite Period
- 2.3 Middle Elamite Period
- 2.3.1 Anshan and Susa
- 2.3.2 Kassite invasions
- 2.3.3 Elamite Empire
- 2.4 Neo-Elamite Period
- 2.4.1 Neo-Elamite I (c. 1100–770)
- 2.4.2 Neo-Elamite II (c. 770–646)
- 2.4.3 Neo-Elamite III (646–539)
- 3 Religion
- 4 Language
- 4.1 Suggested relations to other language families
- 5 Legacy
- 6 Womens Rights
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
The Elamites called their country Haltamti, Sumerian ELAM, Akkadian Elamû, female Elamītu "resident of Susiana, Elamite". Additionally, it is known as Elam in the Hebrew Bible, where they are called the offspring of Elam, eldest son of Shem (see Elam in the Bible; Genesis 10:22, Ezra 4:9), although in actuality the Elamites spoke a non-Semitic language isolate.
The high country of Elam was increasingly identified by its low-lying later capital, Susa. Geographers after Ptolemy called it Susiana. The Elamite civilization was primarily centered in the province of what is modern-day Khuzestān and Ilam in prehistoric times. The modern provincial name Khuzestān is derived from the Persian name for Susa: Old Persian Hūjiya "Elam" (Old Persian: