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Elam

Ilam

ایلام


Khuzestan_Golden_Ring_Lion.jpg
Ancient country located in what is now southwestern Iran, at the head of the Persian Gulf and east of ancient Babylonia; its capital was Susa (Shoosh). It had close cultural ties to Mesopotamia and was in conflict with the Sumerians and Akkadians from around 3000 BC. Elam had been under the domination of Akkad since the time of Sargon. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte was king of Elam from about 1185 to 1155 BC. Under his command, Elam defeated the Kassites and established the first Elamite Empire, which proved to be very short-lived as Nebu Chadnezzar I of Babylon conquered Elam around 1120 BC, bringing the empire to an end. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte was married to a Babylonian princess, the daughter of a kassitian King named Meli-Schipak.In the 13th century BC, Elam became a dominant power that included most of Mesopotamia east of the Tigris and reached almost to Persepolis. Its domination ended when Nebuchadrezzar I of Babylon captured Susa and destroyed it. Elam became a satrapy of the Achaemenid dynasty, and Susa became one of its three capitals.Situated just to the east of Mesopotamia, Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Mesopotamian history where writing was used slightly earlier. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire, especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. The Elamite language is generally treated as an isolate language.Knowledge of the Elamite history remains largely fragmentary, reconstruction being based on mainly Mesopotamian (Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian) sources. The history of Elam is conventionally divided into three periods, spanning more than two millennia. The period before the first Elamite period is known as the proto-Elamite period:-Proto-Elamite: c. 3200 BC – 2700 BC (Proto-Elamite script in Susa)-Old Elamite period: c. 2700 BC – 1600 BC (earliest documents until the Eparti Dynasty)-Middle Elamite period: c. 1500 BC – 1100 BC (Anzanite Dynasty until the Babylonian invasion of Susa)-Neo-Elamite period: c. 1100 BC – 539 BC (characterized Assyrian and Median influence. 539 BC marks the beginning of the Achaemenid period)1-Proto-Elamite Period:Proto-Elamite civilization grew up east of the Tigris and Euphrates river valley; it was a combination of the lowlands and the immediate highland areas to the north and east. At least three proto-Elamite states merged to form Elam: Anshan (modern Fars), Awan (probably modern Lorestan), and Shimashki (modern Kerman). References to Awan are generally older than those to Anshan, suggesting that both states encompassed the same territory, in different eras. To this core Shushiana (modern Khuzestan) was periodically annexed and broken off. In addition, some Proto-Elamite sites are f (Wikipedia) - Elam For other uses, see Elam (disambiguation). Part of a series on theHistory of Iran
Mythological history
Ancient period
  • Proto-Elamite (3200–2700 BCE)
  • Elam (2700–539 BCE)
  • Mannaeans (850–616 BCE)
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Elam (/ˈiːləm/) was an ancient Pre-Iranic civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan (Bakhtiari people) and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam is a transcription from Biblical Hebrew, corresponding to the Sumerian elam(a), the Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East. In classical literature, Elam was more often referred to as Susiana a name derived from its capital, Susa. However, Susiana is not synonymous with Elam and, in its early history, was a distinctly separate cultural and political entity.

Situated just to the east of Mesopotamia, Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Mesopotamian history, where slightly earlier records have been found. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role during the Persian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded Elam, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. Elamite is generally accepted to be a language isolate.

Contents

Etymology

The Elamites called their country Haltamti, Sumerian ELAM, Akkadian Elamû, female Elamītu "resident of Susiana, Elamite". Additionally, it is known as Elam in the Hebrew Bible, where they are called the offspring of Elam, eldest son of Shem (see Elam in the Bible; Genesis 10:22, Ezra 4:9).

The high country of Elam was increasingly identified by its low-lying later capital, Susa. Geographers after Ptolemy called it Susiana. The Elamite civilization was primarily centered in the province of what is modern-day Khuzestān and Ilam in prehistoric times. The modern provincial name Khuzestān is derived from the Persian name for Susa: Old Persian Hūjiya "Elam" (Old Persian:

Tags:Abbasid, Abbasid Caliphate, Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Akkad, Akkadian, Anshan, Assyrian, Atabegs of Yazd, Atropatene, Babylon, Babylonia, Bakhtiari, Bible, Bronze Age, Caliphate, Damavand, Dynasty, Elam, Elamite, Euphrates, Fars, Hebrew, History of Iran, Hotaki, Ilam, Ilkhanate, Iran, Iranian, Iraq, Islamic, Islamic Republic, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kerman, Khuzestan, Lorestan, Mesopotamia, Muzaffarid, Near East, Nebu Chadnezzar, Old Persian, Pahlavi, Parthian, Parthian Empire, Persepolis, Persian, Persian Gulf, Pishdadian, Proto-Elamite, Ptolemy, Qajar, Safavid, Safavid Empire, Saffarid, Samanid, Seleucid, Shoosh, Susa, Susiana, Tahirid, Tigris, Timurid, Timurid dynasty, Umayyad, Wikipedia, Yazd, Zand





See All 6 items matching Elam in Media Gallery

Signs of ancient Elamite civilization in the city of Izeh in Khuzestan province of Iran at the valley of Kulefarah Prayer. The greater embossed figure on the rock seems to be the king or head priest conducting a mass very similar to todays prayers.
Kulefarah valley in Izeh/Khuzestan. Embossed image of an Elamite ceremonial Sacrifice scene where the tall king or goddess is presented with cattles around 3000 BC.  Behind him there are a group of small people.
Destruction of Susa of Elam by Ashurbanipal, 693(647?) BC, relief. flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils.Ashurbanipal avenger for the humiliations of the non-semitic Elamite Empire.
Sassanid Hezar Darb (Thousand Gates) Castle in Darreshahr of Elam
Chartaghi made of bricks and mud a Sassanid era Firealtar standing test of time in Darrehshahr of Elam province,
Embossed figure of Ashur,Banipal, tyrant of assyria. In a tablet unearthed in 1854, Ashur Banipal boasts of the destruction he had wrought on susa. A fragmented Elamite rule was resurrected soon after with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte III.

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