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Erzinjan

Erzincan

ارزنجان


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City East central Turkey on the Euphrates. (Wikipedia) - Erzincan   (Redirected from Erzinjan) Erzincan Country Province Government  • Mayor Area  • District Population (2012)  • Urban  • District  • District Density Website
Erzincan
Coordinates: 39°44′47″N 39°29′29″E / 39.74639°N 39.49139°E / 39.74639; 39.49139Coordinates: 39°44′47″N 39°29′29″E / 39.74639°N 39.49139°E / 39.74639; 39.49139
Turkey
Erzincan
Yüksel Çakır (AKP)
1,622.08 km2 (626.29 sq mi)
96,474
144,545
89/km2 (230/sq mi)
www.erzincan.bel.tr

Erzincan (pronounced ; Armenian: Երզնկա Yerznka, also known in Byzantine sources and to the many Pontic Greeks (who lived in the area until 1922) as Keltzene (Greek: Κελτζηνή) and Acilisene (Ακιλισηνή) to the Romans). It is the capital of Erzincan Province in northeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nearby cities include Erzurum, Sivas, Tunceli, Bingöl, Elazığ, Malatya, Gümüşhane, Bayburt, and Giresun. The city is located at 39° 45' 12" North and 39° 20' 28" East, with an altitude of 1185 meters. The population is 102,173 (2010 census). Its climate produces snowy winters and warm summers.

The city is notable for handcrafted copper goods and a special cheese called "Tulum Peyniri" in Turkish. It is a significant road and rail junction and was once noted for its silverware. Current industries include sugar refining and textile industries.

The city has the headquarter of the Turkish Third Army.

Contents

History

The Erzincan valley crossed by the upper Euphrates was the location of the most important pre-Christian shrine in Armenia, dedicated to the Armenian goddess Anahit. The temple, whose site has not yet been identified, was in a settlement called Erez. The text of Agathangelos records that during the first year of his reign, King Trdat went to Erez and visited Anahit's temple to offer sacrifice. The king ordered Gregory the Illuminator, who was secretly a Christian, to make an offering at its altar. When Gregory refused he was taken captive and tortured, starting the events that would end with Trdat's conversion to Christianity some 14 years later. After that conversion, during the Christianisation of Armenia, the temple at Erez was destroyed and its property and lands given to Gregory. It later became known for its extensive monasteries.

In 1071 Erzincan was absorbed into the Mengüçoğlu under the Seljuk Sulëiman Kutalmish. In 1243 it was destroyed in fighting between the Seljuks under Kaykhusraw II and the Mongols. However, by 1254 its population had recovered enough that William of Rubruck was able to say an earthquake had killed more than 10,000 people. During this period, the city reached a level of semi-independence under the rule of Armenian princes.

The city was completely destroyed by a major earthquake on December 27, 1939. The earthquake of seven violent shocks, the biggest one measuring 8.2 on the Richter scale, was the most powerful one to strike Turkey in recent history. The first stage of the earthquake killed about 8,000 people. The next day, it was reported that the death toll had risen to 20,000. An emergency relief operation began. By the end of the year, 32,962 had died due to more earthquakes and several floods. So extensive was the damage to Erzincan city that its old site was entirely abandoned and a new town was founded a little further to the north.

Battle of Erzincan Main article: Battle of ErzinjanCaucasus Campaign of 1915 – 1916

The Battle of Erzincan took place during the Caucasus Campaign of the First World War. In 1916 Erzincan was the headquarters for the Turkish Third Army commanded by Kerim Pasha. The Russian General Nikolai Yudenich led the Russian Caucasus Army who captured Mama Hatun on 12 July 1916. They then gained the heights of Naglika and took a Turkish position on the banks of the Durum Durasi river, with their cavalry breaking through the Boz-Tapa-Meretkli line. They then advanced on Erzincan arriving by 25 June and taking the city in two days. The city was relatively untouched by battle and Yudenich seized large quantities of supplies. Despite the strategic advantages gained from this victory, Yudenich made no more significant advances and had his forces reduced due to Russian reverses further north.

Colonel Kâzim Karabekir was appointed commander of the First Caucasian Army Corps. Aware of the weaknesses of the Russian Army, they marched against the remnants of the Russian Army, retaking Erzincan in February 1918.

Climate

Erzincan has a continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa) with freezing, snowy winters and hot and very dry summers. Spring is the wettest season whilst summer is the driest.

Climate data for Erzincan Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg. rainy days Mean monthly sunshine hours
14.0 (57.2) 17.2 (63) 25.2 (77.4) 30.0 (86) 32.5 (90.5) 35.0 (95) 40.6 (105.1) 40.2 (104.4) 36.6 (97.9) 30.8 (87.4) 22.5 (72.5) 19.0 (66.2) 40.6 (105.1)
1.9 (35.4) 3.9 (39) 9.9 (49.8) 16.8 (62.2) 22.0 (71.6) 26.9 (80.4) 31.5 (88.7) 31.9 (89.4) 27.4 (81.3) 19.8 (67.6) 11.5 (52.7) 4.5 (40.1) 17.33 (63.18)
−6.5 (20.3) −5.1 (22.8) −0.4 (31.3) 5.2 (41.4) 8.9 (48) 12.5 (54.5) 15.8 (60.4) 15.5 (59.9) 10.8 (51.4) 6.0 (42.8) 0.6 (33.1) −3.5 (25.7) 4.98 (40.97)
−24.4 (−11.9) −25.2 (−13.4) −22.4 (−8.3) −8.2 (17.2) −0.4 (31.3) 4.2 (39.6) 5.0 (41) 6.4 (43.5) 0.9 (33.6) −5.4 (22.3) −11.0 (12.2) −25.0 (−13) −25.2 (−13.4)
26.1 (1.028) 29.6 (1.165) 41.8 (1.646) 54.1 (2.13) 53.2 (2.094) 29.2 (1.15) 9.8 (0.386) 7.4 (0.291) 15.6 (0.614) 46.7 (1.839) 40.9 (1.61) 28.2 (1.11) 382.6 (15.063)
9.3 9.3 11.4 14.0 14.3 9.1 3.9 3.0 4.5 9.2 8.8 9.9 106.7
89.9 106.4 158.1 171 226.3 288 328.6 310 261 192.2 126 74.4 2,331.9
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü
Economy

Mulberry tree plantations were found in Erzincan in the early 20th-century, which were used in sericulture.

Famous inhabitants

Tags:American, Anatolia, Armenia, Armenian, Byzantine, Caucasian, Caucasus, Christian, Christianity, Erzinjan, Erzurum, Euphrates, Greek, Ottoman, Russian, Seljuk, Turkey, Turkish, Website, Wikipedia




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