City East central Turkey
on the Euphrates
) - Erzincan (Redirected from Erzinjan
|Coordinates: 39°44′47″N 39°29′29″E / 39.74639°N 39.49139°E / 39.74639; 39.49139Coordinates: 39°44′47″N 39°29′29″E / 39.74639°N 39.49139°E / 39.74639; 39.49139 |
|Cemalettin Başsoy (AKP) |
|1,622.08 km2 (626.29 sq mi) |
• District density
|89/km2 (230/sq mi) |
Erzincan (pronounced ) is a city in northeastern Turkey. It is the capital of Erzincan Province in northeastern Anatolia. Nearby cities include Erzurum, Sivas, Tunceli, Bingöl, Elâzığ, Malatya, Gümüşhane, Bayburt, and Giresun. Located at an altitude of 1,185 meters above sea level, the city''s climate produces snowy winters and warm summers.
The city is notable for handcrafted copper goods and a special cheese called "tulum peyniri" in Turkish. It is a significant road and rail junction and was once noted for its silverware. Current industries include sugar refining and textile industries.
The city is home to the headquarters of the Turkish Third Army.
- 1 History
- 2 Climate
- 3 Economy
- 4 Famous inhabitants
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Acilisene, the ancient city that is now Erzincan, was the site of the Peace of Acilisine by which in AD 387 Armenia was divided into two vassal states, a smaller one dependent on the Byzantine Empire and a larger one dependent on Persia. This is the name (Ἀκιλισηνή in Greek) by which it is called by Strabo in hia Geography, 11.4.14. The etymological origin of the word is disputed, but it is agreed that the city was once called Erez. For a while it was called Justinianopolis in honour of Emperor Justinian. In more recent Greek it has been called as Κελτζηνή (Celtzene) and Κελεζηνή (Celezene)
In the Armenian language, the 5th-century Life of Mashtots called it Yekeghiats In the more recent past, it was known in Armenian as Երզնկա (Yerznka)
In the settlement of Erez, at a yet unidentified site, there was a pre-Christian shrine dedicated to the Armenian goddess Anahit. A text of Agathangelos reports that during the first year of his reign, King Trdat of Armenia went to Erez and visited Anahit''s temple to offer sacrifice. He ordered Gregory the Illuminator, who was secretly a Christian, to make an offering at its altar. When Gregory refused, he was taken captive and tortured, starting the events that would end with Trdat''s conversion to Christianity some 14 years later. After that conversion, during the Christianisation of Armenia, the temple at Erez was destroyed and its property and lands given to Gregory. It later became known for its extensive monasteries.
It is hard to tell when Acilisene became a bishopric. The first whose name is known is of the mid-5th century: Ioannes, who in 459 signed the decree of Patriarch Gennadius I of Constantinople against the simoniacs. Georgius or Gregorius (both forms are found) was one of the Fathers of the Second Council of Constantinople (553), appearing as "bishop of Justinianopolis". Theodorus was at the Third Council of Constantinople in 681, signing as "bishop of Justinianopolis or the region of Ecclenzine". Georgius was at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879). Until the 10th century, the diocese itself appears in none of the Notitiae Episcopatuum. At the end of that century, they present it as an autocephalous archdiocese, and those of the 11th century present it as a metropolitan see with 21 suffragans. This was the time of greatest splendour of Acilisene, which ended with the decisive defeat of the Byzantines by the Seljuq Turks at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After the 13th century there is no mention of residential bishops of Acilisene and the see no longer appears in Notitiae Episcopatuum. No longer a residential bishopric, Acilisene is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
In 1071 Erzincan was absorbed into the Mengüçoğlu under the Seljuk Sulëiman Kutalmish. In 1243 it was destroyed in fighting between the Seljuks under Kaykhusraw II and the Mongols. However, by 1254 its population had recovered enough that William of Rubruck was able to say an earthquake had killed more than 10,000 people. During this period, the city reached a level of semi-independence under the rule of Armenian princes.
The city was completely destroyed by a major earthquake on December 27, 1939. The earthquake of seven violent shocks, the biggest one measuring 8.2 on the Richter scale, was the most powerful one to strike Turkey in recent history. The first stage of the earthquake killed about 8,000 people. The next day, it was reported that the death toll had risen to 20,000. An emergency relief operation began. By the end of the year, 32,962 had died due to more earthquakes and several floods. So extensive was the damage to Erzincan city that its old site was entirely abandoned and a new town was founded a little further to the north.
Battle of Erzincan Main article: Battle of ErzincanCaucasus Campaign of 1915 – 1916
The Battle of Erzincan took place during the Caucasus Campaign of the First World War. In 1916 Erzincan was the headquarters for the Turkish Third Army commanded by Kerim Pasha. The Russian General Nikolai Yudenich led the Russian Caucasus Army who captured Mama Hatun on 12 July 1916. They then gained the heights of Naglika and took a Turkish position on the banks of the Durum Durasi river, with their cavalry breaking through the Boz-Tapa-Meretkli line. They then advanced on Erzincan arriving by 25 June and taking the city in two days. The city was relatively untouched by battle and Yudenich seized large quantities of supplies. Despite the strategic advantages gained from this victory, Yudenich made no more significant advances and had his forces reduced due to Russian reverses further north.
Colonel Kâzım Karabekir was appointed commander of the First Caucasian Army Corps. Aware of the weaknesses of the Russian Army, they marched against the remnants of the Russian Army, retaking Erzincan in February 1918.
Erzincan has a continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa) with freezing, snowy winters and hot and dry summers. Spring is the wettest season whilst late summer is the driest.
Climate data for Erzincan (1960-2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F)
|14.0 (57.2) ||17.2 (63) ||25.2 (77.4) ||30.0 (86) ||33.8 (92.8) ||35.2 (95.4) ||40.6 (105.1) ||40.2 (104.4) ||36.6 (97.9) ||30.8 (87.4) ||22.5 (72.5) ||19.0 (66.2) ||40.6 (105.1) |
Average high °C (°F)
|1.7 (35.1) ||3.7 (38.7) ||9.9 (49.8) ||16.7 (62.1) ||22.1 (71.8) ||26.9 (80.4) ||31.4 (88.5) ||31.7 (89.1) ||27.3 (81.1) ||20.0 (68) ||11.5 (52.7) ||4.6 (40.3) ||17.29 (63.13) |
Daily mean °C (°F)
|−2.9 (26.8) ||−1.2 (29.8) ||4.4 (39.9) ||10.7 (51.3) ||15.6 (60.1) ||20.0 (68) ||24.0 (75.2) ||23.7 (74.7) ||18.9 (66) ||12.1 (53.8) ||5.2 (41.4) ||0.1 (32.2) ||10.88 (51.6) |
Average low °C (°F)
|−6.9 (19.6) ||−5.5 (22.1) ||−0.5 (31.1) ||5.0 (41) ||8.8 (47.8) ||12.3 (54.1) ||15.6 (60.1) ||15.2 (59.4) ||10.7 (51.3) ||5.9 (42.6) ||0.6 (33.1) ||−3.5 (25.7) ||4.81 (40.66) |
Record low °C (°F)
|−26.7 (−16.1) ||−25.2 (−13.4) ||−22.4 (−8.3) ||−8.2 (17.2) ||−0.4 (31.3) ||2.0 (35.6) ||5.0 (41) ||6.4 (43.5) ||0.6 (33.1) ||−6.2 (20.8) ||−17.4 (0.7) ||−25.0 (−13) ||−26.7 (−16.1) |
Precipitation mm (inches)
|28.1 (1.106) ||30.3 (1.193) ||41.2 (1.622) ||53.8 (2.118) ||54.5 (2.146) ||30.2 (1.189) ||11.4 (0.449) ||6.8 (0.268) ||14.3 (0.563) ||43.4 (1.709) ||39.3 (1.547) ||28.8 (1.134) ||382.1 (15.044) |
Avg. precipitation days
|9.6 ||9.3 ||11.6 ||14.1 ||14.5 ||9.2 ||3.3 ||2.6 ||4.3 ||8.8 ||8.8 ||10.1 ||106.2 |
Mean monthly sunshine hours
|89.9 ||106.4 ||158.1 ||171 ||226.3 ||288 ||328.6 ||310 ||261 ||192.2 ||126 ||74.4 ||2,331.9 |
|Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü |
Mulberry tree plantations were found in Erzincan in the early 20th-century, which were used in sericulture.
- Kutluğ Ataman, Turkish filmmaker and contemporary artist.
- Ali Ekber Çiçek, folk musician, was born in 1935 in Erzincan.
- Mustafa Sarıgül, politician, was born in Erzincan.
- Varaztad Kazanjian, Armenian-American dentist who was one of the pioneers of plastic surgery
- Soghomon Tehlirian, Armenian activist
- Yıldırım Akbulut, former prime minister of Turkey
- Osman Nuri Koptagel, military officer in the Ottoman and Turkish armies
- Mustafa Kutlu, Turkish writer
- Hekimoğlu İsmail, Turkish writer
- Vecdi Gönül, Turkish cabinet minister
- Binali Yıldırım, Turkish cabinet minister
- Hafız Şerif, early folk musician
- Sılbıslı Salih, early folk musician
- Aşık Ali Serdari, Sür beni beni, Kelkitli poet.
- Kadir Savun, Turkish actor
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