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Esfandiar

اسفندیار


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Statue of Esfandiyār in Ramsar, Iran.Rostam and Esfandiyar

Sepandiār or Esfandiyār (Persian: سپنديار‎), also transliterated as Sepandiyar, Esfandyar, Isfandiar, Isfandiyar or Esfandiar, was a legendary Iranian hero also known as Belfian. He was the son and the crowned prince of the Kayanian King Goshtasp (from Middle Persian Wishtasp from Avestan language Vishtaspa) and brother of the saintly Pashotan (Middle Persian Peshotan, Avestan Peshotanu).

The "Sepandiār" of legend is best known from the tragic story of a battle with Rostam, as described in Ferdowsi''s epic Shahnameh (Book of Kings). It is one of the longest episodes in Shahnameh, and one of its literary highlights.

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Etymology

The Perso word ''Sepandiār'' is derived from Middle Persian ''Spandadat'' or ''Spandyat'' (the variance is due to ambiguities inherent to Pahlavi script), which in turn derives from Avestan Spentodata "Given by/through bounty" or "Given by (the) holy" (see Amesha Spenta for other meanings of spenta-). The Median language *Spendata - as it is reconstructed - probably motivated a similar Old Persian form, which may be inferred from Greek Sphendadates, a 5th-century BCE political figure unrelated to the Esfandiar of legend. Equally unrelated is the Sassanid-era feudal house of Spandyat, that - like numerous other feudal houses also - adopted a Kayanian name in order to legitimize and emphasize the antiquity of their genealogy.

In the ShahnamehEsfandiyar fighting with wolves.

According to the epic - the Shahnameh– Sepandiār (Esfandiyār) as the Crowned Prince of ancient Iran (or Persia) supported the prophet Zartosht (Zarathustra), enabling him to spread the religion of Zoroastrianism in the land. He also fought against many apostates and enemies of Zartosht to do so. In return, Zartosht gave Esfandiyār an armor from heaven that made him invincible. Zartosht blessed the prince and declared that anyone who would spill the blood of Esfandiyār would suffer a cursed life of bad omens until the day he died, and even after death would be condemned to hell.

In the famous story of Rostam''s fight against Esfandiyār, the Simurgh warned Rostam that prince Esfandiyār was a blessed divine prince. He told Rostam that there would be no shame in surrendering to him. He then helped Rostam defeat the prince, as follows:

Esfandiyār''s father, Goshtasp, promises to give him the throne if he manages to repel an invasion in far-off provinces. Esfandiyār is successful at this, but his father does not fulfill his promise, instead sending Esfandiyār off on another mission to suppress a rebellion in Turan. Esfandiyār is again successful, and upon his return Goshtasp hedges once again and - although he is aware of a prediction that foretells the death of Esfandiyār at the hand of Rostam - compels the young hero to go and bring the aging Rostam in chains for his arrogance and disrespect toward the king. Although Esfandiyār initially protests, reminding his father of Rostam''s fame, great age and services to the dynasty, he eventually complies with his father''s wishes and sets out towards Rostam.

Upon reaching the home of Rostam, Esfandiyār delivers the message, but Rostam refuses to comply with being put in chains, accepting only to accompany the young prince to his father''s palace. Esfandiyār insists, but Rostam - although making numerous concessions - stands his ground, and the two eventually meet in single combat. In the subsequent battle, the invincible Esfandiyār is unaffected by Rostam''s blows while Rostam is seriously wounded by Esfandiyār''s arrows which had diamond arrowheads.

Pleading respite to dress his wounds, Rostam withdraws, where he learns from the Simurgh of the only weapon that can affect Esfandiyār: a shot to the eyes from a special double-headed arrow made from the wood of a special tamarisk tree. The Simurgh warns Rostam about the fate that awaits the killer of Esfandiyār and asks Rostam to consider surrendering to the Prince. But Rostam refuses to accept the shame of surrendering to anyone and upon making this decision, Rostam fashions the double head arrow with a feather of Simurgh and a twig of a tamarisk tree, and when the battle resumes the next morning, Esfandiyār is slain by a shot through the eyes.

In the end Esfandiyār confesses that it was the false promise of his father Goshtasp who did not want to part with his throne, and the Arrow of Simurgh that killed him; and Rostam is not guilty in this, but his real murderer who should be cursed and blamed is Goshtasp.

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