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    * Neishabour *

    Neyshabour, Neishapour,Nishapur

    نیشابور ، نیشابور، نشابور. نشاپور. نیشاپور. نیسابور. نیوشاهپور

    Originally Nivak Shahpuhr, it was built by Shahpour who found beautiful meadows there; an ancient Iranian city is at the center of a farming region for cotton, fruit and grain. Other industries include carpets, pottery, leather goods and turquoise. It became one of Persia's foremost cities in A.D. 400, a center of culture with several important colleges. Omar Khayyam, the 11th century Persian poet, was born in Neishabour.In 1153, the city was plundered by Ghaz Turks and burnt the city. Years later, people tried hard to revive the city and built city walls around it. In 1221, an arrow killed Chengiz Khan's son in law. Mongols captured the city and killed everything they found alive in the city and razed it to the ground. Afterwards, Neishabour could never regain its prosperity. (Wikipedia) - Nishapur   (Redirected from Neishabour) For the administrative subdivision, see Nishapur County. "Neyshabur" redirects here. For the village in Isfahan Province, see Neyshabur, Isfahan. Nishapur نیشابور Neyshabur Country Province County Foundation Municipality of Nishapur Government  • Mayor of Nishapur  • Governor of Nishapur Elevation Population (2011)  • Total   Demonym Time zone Website
    Nickname(s): Sassanid and Umayyed era: Abarshahr (Upper Cities), Little Damascus (by Ibn Battuta
    Coordinates: 36°12′48″N 58°47′45″E / 36.21333°N 58.79583°E / 36.21333; 58.79583Coordinates: 36°12′48″N 58°47′45″E / 36.21333°N 58.79583°E / 36.21333; 58.79583
    Razavi Khorasan
    Nishapur County
    3rd century
    Mohammad-Hassan Zarandi
    Esfandiar Jalayeri
    1,250 m (4,100 ft)
    City of Nishapur : 239,185 Nishapur County : 433,105 Urban areas of Nishapur County : 270,301
    2 Census
    IRST (UTC+03:30)
    Neyshaboor, Rowzaneh,Neyshabur Day

    Nishapur or Nishabur ( pronunciation (help·info); Persian: نیشابور‎, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nīshābūr, and Neyshābūr from Middle Persian: New-Shabuhr, meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur", or "Perfect built of Shapur"), is a city in the Razavi Khorasan Province, capital of the Nishapur County and former capital of Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Mount Binalud. It had an estimated population of 239,185 as of 2011 and its county 433,105. Nearby are the turquoise mines that have supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia.

    The city was founded in the 3rd century by Shapur I as a Sasanian satrapy capital. Nishapur later became the capital of Tahirid dynasty and was reformed by Abdullah Tahir in 830, and was later selected as the capital of Seljuq dynasty by Tughril in 1037. From the Abbasid era to Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia and Eastern Iran, the city evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center within the Islamic world. Nishapur, along with Merv, Herat and Balkh were one of the four great cities of Greater Khorasan and one of the greatest cities in the middle ages, a seat of governmental power in eastern of caliphate, a dwelling place for diverse ethnic and religious groups, a trading stop on commercial routes from Transoxiana and China, Iraq and Egypt.

    Nishapur reached the height of its prosperity under the Samanids in the 10th century, but was destroyed by Mongols in 1221, and further ruined by other invasions and earthquakes in the 13th century. After that time, a much smaller settlement was established just north of the ancient town, and the once bustling metropolis lay underground—until a team of excavators from the Metropolitan Museum of Art arrived in the mid-20th century. They worked at Nishapur between 1935 and 1940, returning for a final season in the winter of 1947–48. What remains of old Nishapur region is a 3500 hectares "Kohandejh" area, south of the current city of Nishapur.

    • 1 History
    • 2 Culture
      • 2.1 in UNESCO
      • 2.2 Anthem
      • 2.3 Museums
      • 2.4 Popular culture
      • 2.5 Local and Cultural days
    • 3 Arts
      • 3.1 Pottery
      • 3.2 Carpet-weaving
      • 3.3 Turquoise masonry
      • 3.4 Tile
      • 3.5 Production of Textiles
      • 3.6 Traditional Cloth Weaving
      • 3.7 Wooden Arts
      • 3.8 Felt-weaving
      • 3.9 Painting
      • 3.10 Calligraphy
      • 3.11 Statuary
      • 3.12 Wall Painting
      • 3.13 Carving
    • 4 People
      • 4.1 Language
      • 4.2 Religion
      • 4.3 Population
      • 4.4 Scholars and famous people
    • 5 Education
      • 5.1 Schools , Universities and colleges
      • 5.2 Libraries
    • 6 Sport
      • 6.1 Sport centers
      • 6.2 Famous athletes
    • 7 Transportation
      • 7.1 Train
      • 7.2 Nishapur train disaster
      • 7.3 Road 44
    • 8 Industry and Economy
      • 8.1 Tourism
      • 8.2 Power stations
      • 8.3 Industrial Estates
      • 8.4 Companies and factories
      • 8.5 Agriculture
      • 8.6 Souvenir
    • 9 Geography
      • 9.1 Weather
      • 9.2 Geology
      • 9.3 Seismicity
    • 10 Mass media
      • 10.1 Newspaper publishing
      • 10.2 Broadcasting
      • 10.3 Printing
    • 11 Administration
      • 11.1 Relations
        • 11.1.1 Twin towns and sister cities
    • 12 Popular culture
    • 13 Recent incidents
    • 14 Souvenirs
    • 16 Sister cities
    • 17 References
    • 18 Further reading
    • 19 External links

    History Pre-History & Archaeology

    Little archaeology has been done on this vast and complicated site. George Curzon remarked that Nishapur had been destroyed and rebuilt more times than any other city in history, an evocative statement whether or not it is statistically true. The Metropolitan Museum of Art undertook excavations from 1935 that were interrupted in 1940. Searching largely for museum-worthy trophies that they shared with the government of the Shah, the Metropolitan''s publications were limited to its own Nishapur ceramics. The site of Nishapur has been ransacked for half a century since World War II, to feed the international market demand for early Islamic works of art.

    Shadiyakh (in Persian: شادیاخ, a contracted form of شادی کاخ, Shadi-Kakh or Palace of Happiness) was one of the main palaces of old Nishapur up to the 9th century AD, which became more important and populated after that. Some notable people like Attar lived there. Attar''s tomb is nowadays in that area. This palace was perhaps completely ruined in the 13th century.

    Middle Ages

    Nishapur occupies an important strategic position astride the old Silk Road that linked Anatolia and the Mediterranean Sea with China. On the Silk Road, Nishapur has often defined the flexible frontier between the Iranian plateau and Central Asia. The town derived its name from its reputed founder, the Sassanian king Shapur I, who is said to have established it in the 3rd century CE. Nearby are the turquoise mines that supplied the world with turquoise for at least two millennia. It became an important town in the Khorasan region but subsequently declined in significance until a revival in its fortunes in the 9th century under the Tahirid dynasty, when the glazed ceramics of Nishapur formed an important item of trade to the west. For a time Nishapur rivaled Baghdad or Cairo: Toghrül, the first ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, made Nishapur his residence in 1037 and proclaimed himself sultan there, but it declined thereafter, as Seljuk fortunes were concentrated in the west. In the year 100 0CE, it was among the 10 largest cities on earth. After the husband of Genghis Khan''s daughter was killed at Nishapur in 1221, she ordered the death of all in the city (~1.7 million), and the skulls of men, women, and children were piled in pyramids by the Mongols. This invasion and earthquakes destroyed the pottery kilns. In 1979, the 15th World Scout Jamboree was scheduled to be held in Nishapur, but it was cancelled because of the uprising against the Shah of Iran led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini .

    ToponymyMost historians believe The name Nishapur may derive from the name of Shapur IPrehistory and antiquity Sassanid Nishapur Middle Ages Chronicle Culture in UNESCO Anthem

    The special Anthem of Nishapur was unveiled for the first time on April 14, 2011, an introduction and three parts,Frightening sound of bells,noted on three invasive and destructive in the history of Nishapur,and sound of percussion and wailing women represent the miseries caused by these attacks.

    Persian original UniPers alphabet English translation
    ای پایتخت اول ایرانی من ای آسمانت فرصتِ بارانی من «فیروزه» ات نقش نگین مهربانی اندیشه های مردمانت آسمانی روییده در هر گوشه ات گل‌های احساس خرداد «بینالود» تو سرشار «ریواس» شرمنده از کردار خود «تاتار» و «چنگیز» پاینده باشی ای «برشهر» هنرخیز در کوچه باغت مانده رد پایی از ماه گل کرده در چشمان تو نام «قدمگاه» ey payetâkhte avvâle irânie mân ey asemânat forsate bâaranie mâan firuzeh at naghshe negine mehrabâni andishe hâye mardomânat asemâni rooiyedeh dar har gushe at gol hâye ehsâs Khordade binalude to sarshare rivas sharmande az kerdâre khod tatar o changiz pâyandeh bâshi ey barshâhre honar khiz dar kuche bâghat mande radde payy az mah gol kardeh dar cheshmane to nâmeh ghadam gah Oh! My Iranian first capital Oh! your sky my rainy time your Turquoise, pattern of kindness ring Your People''s thoughts Heavenly Sprouting in every your corner Emotional flowers: Khordad of your Binalud ful of rhubarb, Tartar and Genghis ashamed of their actions
    Museums Popular culture
    • US band Santana released an instrumental track entitled "Incident at Neshabur" on their 1970 LP release, Abraxas.
    Local and Cultural days Name Day Calendar
    Local and Cultural days in Nishapur
    Farvardin (Hamal) 1 Nowruz Solar Hijri
    Farvardin (Hamal) 13 Sizdah Be-dar,Day of Nature Solar Hijri
    Farvardin (Hamal) 25 Respect day for Attar of Nishapur Solar Hijri
    Ordibehesht(Thawr) 28 Respect day for Omar Khayyam Solar Hijri
    Tir (Saratan) 10 Remembrance day for Imam Ali al-Ridha Solar Hijri
    Mordad 2 Sympathy day for Victims of Boozhan flood Solar Hijri
    Azar 30 Night of Yalda Solar Hijri
    Bahman 29 Sympathy day for Victims of Nishapur train disaster Solar Hijri
    Last Wednesday of Esfand Chaharshanbe Suri Festival Solar Hijri
    Esfand 29 Celebrate the end of winter Solar Hijri
    Muharram 10 Remembrance of Muharram Lular Hijri
    Safar 20 Arba''een Lular Hijri
    Rabi'' al-awwal 17 Mawlid Lular Hijri
    Rajab 25 Respect day for Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, death of Musa al-Kadhim Lular Hijri
    Sha''aban 14 Borat Nights (3 nights) Lular Hijri
    Shawwal 1 Eid al-Fitr Lular Hijri
    Dhu al-Hijjah 18 Eid of Ghadir,Day of Visiting Sadaat Lular Hijri

    About Arts in Nishapur, or Arts of Old Nishapur

    PotteryBowl painted on slip under transparent glaze (Polychrome), Nishabur, 9th or 10th century. National Museum of Iran, Tehran.

    Nishapur during the Islamic Golden Age, especially the 9th and 10th centuries, was one of the great centers of pottery and related arts. Most of Ceramic artifacts discovered in Nishapur preserve in Metropolitan Museum of Art and Museums in Tehran and Mashhad. Ceramics produced at Nishapur showed links with Sassanid art and Central Asian. Nowadays there are 4 Pottery workshop in Nishapur.


    Weaving carpets and rugs common in the more than 470 villages in Nishapur County,the most important carpet Workshop located in the villages of: Shafi'' Abad, Garineh Darrud Baghshan Kharv Bozghan Sayyed Abad Sar Chah Suleymani Sultan Abad and Eshgh Abad. Nishapur Carpet workshops weaved the biggest Carpets in the world, like carpets of : Sheikh Zayed Mosque, Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Armenian Presidential Palace, Embassy of Finland in Tehran, Mohammed Al-Ameen Mosque in Oman.

    Modern art of carpet in Nishapur began in 1946 after inauguration of a carpet-weaving workshop in a caravansary.

    Turquoise masonryCutting and grinding Nishapur turquoise in Mashhad, Iran, 1973

    For at least 2,000 years, Iran, known before as Persia, has remained an important source of turquoise, which was named by Iranians initially "pirouzeh" meaning "victory" and later after Arab invasion "firouzeh". In Iranian architecture, the blue turquoise was used to cover the domes of the Iranian palaces because its intense blue colour was also a symbol of heaven on earth.

    This deposit, which is blue naturally, and turns green when heated due to dehydration, is restricted to a mine-riddled region in Nishapur, the 2,012-metre (6,601 ft) mountain peak of Ali-mersai, which is tens of kilometers from Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province, Iran. A weathered and broken trachyte is host to the turquoise, which is found both in situ between layers of limonite and sandstone, and amongst the scree at the mountain''s base. These workings, together with those of the Sinai Peninsula, are the oldest known.

    TileTile working in Muhammad al-Mahruq Mosque,Nishapur

    In many important historical or modern monuments and buildings the Art of Tiles are widely used in Nishapur,

    Production of Textiles Traditional Cloth Weaving Wooden ArtsWooden Mosque of Nishapur.Felt-weaving Painting CalligraphyCalligraphy Conference about Laylat al-Qadr in Nishapur,July 31, 2013StatuaryStatue of Kamal-ol-molk on his graveWall PaintingMembers of Red Crescent in village of Shur Rud,painting wallsCarving People LanguageA hawza in Nishapur,a school that taught Arabic language as religious studies courses.Other schools in Nishapur taught Arabic as historical and religious language

    Most people speak Persian in Nishapur.

    Khorasani Turkic, Kurdish and Arabic are also spoken.


    Islam is first religion and Twelever Mahdist Shia is first Madhab in Nishapur.

    Population Scholars and famous peopleAbul al-Wafa BuzjaniAbū-Sa''id Abul-KhayrOmar KhayyamAttar of NishapurHaji Bektash VeliSaadat Ali Khan IHossein Vahid KhorasaniSaadat Ali Khan II of Oudh

    Sorted by date

    • Teodor of Nishapur - physician in the 4th century
    • Mazdak - (died c. 524 or 528) was a Zoroastrian prophet, Iranian reformer and religious activist
    • Kanarang - was a unique title in the Sassanid army, given to the commander of the Sassanid Empire''s northeasternmost frontier province, Abarshahr (encompassing the cities of Tus, Nishapur and Abiward).
    • Behafarid - was an 8th-century Persian Zoroastrian heresiarch
    • Muhammad al-Mahruq -
    • Sunpadh - (died 755)cleric
    • Shatiteh - Sufi lady considered by Musa al-Kadhim
    • Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh - muhaddith, faqih
    • Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri - 9th-century philosopher, mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer and author
    • Ibn Khuzaymah - Muslim scholar
    • Ahmad Harb -
    • Hamdun Qassar -
    • Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj - Muslim scholar
    • Abdullah ibn Manazil -
    • Ibn Mundhar Nishapuri -
    • Muhammad Mehran -
    • Abu Sahl Nili - (964-1029) physician
    • Abu al-Hassan al-Amiri - (died 992) was a Muslim theologian and philosopher
    • Abū al-Wafā'' Būzjānī - (10 June 940 – 15 July 998) was a mathematician and astronomer
    • Hakim al-Nishaburi - (933 - 1012), was a Sunni scholar and historian
    • Tha''ālibī -(961–1038), Muslim philologist,writer and poet
    • Ibn Abi al-Tayyeb -
    • Ahmad ibn ''Imad al-Din - was a Persian physician and alchemist. He was probably from Nishapur in the 11th century.
    • Ibn Abi Sadiq - was an 11th-century Persian physician
    • Abū-Sa''īd Abul-Khayr - (December 7, 967 - January 12, 1049) was a famous Persian Sufi and poet
    • Al-Juwayni (1028—1085 CE) was a Sunni Shafi''i Faqih and Mutakallim.
    • Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tha''labi - was an 11th-century Islamic scholar.
    • Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin Qushayri - was born in 986 CE (376 AH),Philosopher and Sufi
    • Omar Khayyám - (18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian polymath, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet.
    • Mu''izzi - was an 11th and 12th-centuries poet
    • Haji Bektash Veli - was a Muslim mystic
    • Nizam al-Din Hasan al-Nisaburi - (d. 1328/9) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, jurist, exegete, and poet.
    • Attar of Nishapur - (c. 1145 – c. 1221),was a Muslim poet, theoretician of Sufism, and hagiographer .
    • Muhammad Yahya Sibak -
    • Abu al-Qasim al-Habib Neishapuri - physician mid-15th century.
    • Shah-Mahmud Rahi Nishapuri - 15th century. Calligrapher
    • Salim Nishapuri - 15th century. Calligrapher
    • Shah Mahmud Nishapuri - 15th century. Calligrapher
    • Saadat Ali Khan I - (b. c. 1680 – d. 19 March 1739) was the Subahdar Nawab of Oudh. All the rulers of Oudh State in India belonged to a Shia Muslim dynasty of Persian origin from Nishapur. They were renowned for their secularism and broad outlook. After they rebelled against the British their state was annexed to form the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
    • Hamid Hussain Musavi - i (born 1830 - died 1880) was a leading Shia scholar
    • Abdul-Jawad Adib Nishapuri -
    • Muhammad-Taqi Adib Nishapuri -
    • Heydar Yaghma -
    • Badi'' -
    • Abolghasem Sakhdari - wrestler
    • Saeed Khani - footballer
    • Yaghoub Ali Shourvarzi - wrestler
    • Muhammad-Hassan Farahbakhshian -
    • Farrokh Tamimi -
    • Fereydun Grayli -
    • Nur-Ali Shushtari -
    • Esmail Shooshtari -
    • Parviz Meshkatian -
    • Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani - i (born 1939) is a Persian writer, poet, literary critic, editor, and translator.
    • Hossein Vahid Khorasani - born January 1, 1921) is an Iranian Twelver Shia Marja
    • Fereydun Joneidi -
    • Omid Majd -
    • Abulhassan Davoodi -
    • Mohammad-Reza Sarhangi -
    • Jalal Moghaddam -
    • Mohammad-Ghasem Akhavian -
    • Abdolreza Kahani -
    • Hossein Sadeghi -
    • Gholam-Hossein Mozaffari -
    • Hosssein Ansari-Rad -
    • Hamed Behdad - (1973- ) Actor
    • Hossein Lotfabadi - (1947- ) Professor of Psychology
    Education Schools , Universities and colleges

    Islamic Azad University of Nishapur is a main branch of Islamic Azad University. It was established in 1985 and has two faculties in IAUM, Agriculture, and Engineering faculty offers Bachelor, and Master degrees.

    Libraries Sport

    Nishapur has one professional football team, Jahan Electric Nishapur, who compete in Razavi Khorasan''s Provincial Leagues.

    Sport centers

    Enghelab Sports Complex is an indoor arena in Nishapur. The arena houses Nishapur''s basketball, volleyball, and futsal teams.

    Famous athletes Transportation Train Nishapur train disaster

    On 18 February 2004, runaway train wagons crashed into the village of Khayyam near Nishapur, causing an explosion and killing over 300 people. The entire village of Khayyam was destroyed.

    Road 44

    Road 44 is a highway that goes from Tehran to Mashhad and also passes Nishapur on the way.

    Industry and Economy Tourism Power stations Industrial Estates Companies and factories Agriculture Souvenir Geography Weather Geology Seismicity Mass mediaAn IRIB center in Nishpaur.Newspaper publishing

    General publications in Nishapur includes the weekly and local newspapers. The first local newspaper of Khorasan province is Morning of Nishapur publishing since 1989,and Shadiakh since 2000,Khayyam Nameh since 2004,Nasim since 2006,Far reh Simorgh since 2010.


    IRIB center of Mashhad covers news of Nishapur.


    Two book publishers working in the city:Klidar & Abar Shahr.

    AdministrationLeft: Mohammad-Hassan Zarandi,Currently Mayor of Nishapur since March 9, 2013 ; right: Current Governor of Nishapur County since May 11, 2013.Relations Twin towns and sister cities
  • Ghazni, Afghanistan
  • Khoy, Iran
  • Konya, Turkey
  • Karbala, Iraq
  • Popular culture

    US band Santana released an instrumental track entitled "Incident at Neshabur" on their 1970 LP release, Abraxas.

    Recent incidents Souvenirs

    The most important Nishapur souvenirs include turquoise and rhubarb.

    Neyshabur Turquoise has been used for more than 2000 years and for this turquoise it is sometimes called "the turquoise land". Neyshabur turquoise and jewellery made from it are sold as souvenirs in Neyshabur and Mashhad resorts.

    Rhubarb (Persian rivaas or rivand), a sour vegetable, grows at the foot of the eponymous Rivand Mountains (more recently, Turkified as Mount Binalud). Soft drinks made from the stems of the plant, such as "Sharbate rivaas" (in Persian:شربت ریواس) and "Khoshaabe rivaas" (in Persian:خوشاب ریواس), are sold at some Nishapur resorts as souvenirs.


    This section includes quotes about Nishapur or its global celebrities.

    Nishapur ... pleasant town ... Nishapur, is the best cities of the Great Khorasan.

    —Hadith, source

    If you wanted to travel to only one city in the world, I have no doubt that the city of Nishapur. I think the secret is all in the same universe

    Jorge Luis Borges, source

    The only city that had the ability to parity with Cairo, was Nishapur.

    —Nasir Khosrow, source

    Nishapur is the site link of iran and Islam.The superior quality and Historical and Islamic position of Nishapur, It requires a special look to be seen today

    Mohammad Khatami, source

    Nishapur is Miniaturized Damascus

    Ibn Batuta, source

    Two things make men free from sorrow Travel / Morning of Nishapur and Sleeping in Baghdad.

    —Middle eastern proverb, source

    this Nishapur on my view is greater iran compressed

    —Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani, source

    Renowned editors and authors of this city rising up, so that scholars of this area will not be considered

    —Estakhri, sourceSister cities
    This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2011)

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