Persian Gulf War
Gulf War First, Persian Gulf War I
جنگ خلیج فارس
(1990–91) International conflict triggered by
Iraq's invasion of
Kuwait claiming that it was historically part of Iraq in August 1990,
Saddam Hussein desired to acquire Kuwait's rich oil fields and expand its power in the region. The
United States who had primarily shown a green light, eventually formed a broad coalition including some
Arab countries, and began massing troops in northern
When Iraq ignored a
UN Security Council deadline to withdraw from Kuwait, the coalition began a large-scale air offensive (Jan. 16-17, 1991).
Saddam responded by launching ballistic missiles against neighbouring coalition states as well as
Israel. A ground offensive by the coalition (February 24-28) quickly achieved victory. Estimates of
Iraqi military deaths range up to 100,000; coalition forces lost about 300 troops. The war also caused extensive damage to the region's environment. The Iraqi regime subsequently faced widespread popular uprisings, specially among
Kurdish population which it brutally suppressed.
Bush always regretted his father's decision not to move ahead and take Saddam down, although Washngton benefitted a lot from Saddam Hussein in containing
Iran's revolution during the 8 year Iran-Iraq War.
A UN trade embargo remained in effect after the end of the conflict, pending Iraq's compliance with the terms of the armistice. The foremost term was that Iraq destroy its nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons programs. The embargo continued into the 21st century and ceased only after the
Persian Gulf War.