سپاه جاودان ، گارد جاویدان،انوشیا
Immortality is an essential concept in
Iranian history. It's the foundation of
Iran's cultural heritage according to which a Martyr never dies. On the contrary, every drop of his blood nurtures the ideals leading the path to independence, freedom, and higher collective interests.
The "Immortals", sometimes "Ten Thousand Immortals" or "
Persian Immortals" was the name given by
Herodotus to an elite force of soldiers under the
Achaemenid Empire. This force performed the dual roles of both Imperial Guard and standing army during the
Persian Empire's expansion and during the
Greco-Persian Wars. Its Persian name may have been Anushiya.
Herodotus describes the 'Immortals' as being heavy infantry led by
Hydarnes that were kept constantly at strength of exactly 10,000 men. He claimed that the unit's name stemmed from the custom that every killed, seriously wounded or sick member was immediately replaced with a new one, maintaining the cohesion of the unit.
This elite corps is only called the 'Immortals' in sources based on Herodotus. Whilst there is evidence for them from
Persia, this does not mention this name for them.
The 'Immortals' played an important role in
Cyrus the Great conquest of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 547 BC,
Cambyses' campaign against
Egypt in 525 BC and
Dariush the Great invasion of
India's smaller western frontier kingdoms (western Punjabh and Sindh) and
Scythia in 520 BC and 513 BC. Immortals participated in the Battle of
Thermopylae 480 BC and were amongst the Persian occupation troops in
Greece in 479 BC under
Herodotus describes their armament as follows: wicker shields, short spears, swords or large daggers, bow and arrow. Underneath their robes they wore scale armor coats. The spear counterbalances of the common soldiery were of silver; to differentiate commanding ranks, the officers' spear butt-spikes were golden. The regiment was followed by a caravan of covered carriages, camels, and mules that transported their supplies, along with concubines and attendants to serve them; this supply train carried special food that was reserved only for their consumption.
The headdress worn by the Immortals is believed to have been the Persian tiara. Its actual form is uncertain, but some sources describe it as a cloth or felt cap which could be pulled over the face to keep out wind and dust in the arid Persian plains. Surviving
Achaemenid colored glazed bricks and carved reliefs represent the Immortals as wearing elaborate robes and gold jewelry, though these garments and accessories were most likely worn only for ceremonial occasions.
The title of "Immortals" was first revived under the
Sassanid army. The most famous of the
Savaran units were the Javedan (Immortals) and numbered 10,000 men, like the Achaemenid predecessors, with the difference that they were cavalry. Their task was mainly to secure any breakthroughs and to enter battles at crucial stages.
The title of "Immortals" was again revived under the
Byzantine Empire, under the Emperor Michael VII (1071–1081). His general Nikephoros reorganised the central field army ("Tagmata") of the Eastern Empire following the disastrous defeat of
Manzikert by the Turks in 1071. The remnants of the provincial troops of the Eastern Themes (military provinces) were brought together in a new Imperial Guard regiment named after the Persian Immortals and reportedly also numbering about 10,000 men.
Many centuries later during the
Napoleonic Wars/Wars of the Coalitions,
French soldiers referred to Napoleon's Imperial Guard as "the Immortals."
Iranian Army under the last
Shah included an all volunteer Javidan Guard, also known as the "Immortals" after the ancient Persian royal guard. The "Immortals" were based in the Lavizan Barracks in
Tehran. By 1978 this elite force comprised a brigade of 4,000–5,000 men, including a battalion of Chieftain Tanks. Following the overthrow of the Imperial regime in 1979 the "Immortals" were disbanded.
Herodotus' account of two warrior elites - the Spartan hoplites and the Immortals - facing each other in battle has inspired a set of rather colorful depictions of the battle, especially in regard of the Immortals.
Dariush the King says in
Bisotoun Inscription: Whoso shall worship
Ahouramazda, divine blessing will be upon him, both while living and when dead.