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Peshawar

Pishavar

پیشاور


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Capital of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.Peshawar is the capital of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the administrative centre (and the central business hub) for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.Peshawar is situated in a large valley near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass, between the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau and the Indus Valley.Peshawar has recently evolved into a very big city with a broad range of ethnic diversity. In the last three decades, there has been a significant increase in urban population, in part due to internal migration of people in search of better employment opportunities, education, and services, in part because of the afflux of Afghan refugees and other people displaced by military operations and civil unrest in neighboring regions.Peshawar is considered a most strategic city for the United States-led military occupation of Afghanistan, because many supplies for NATO and US troops are sent via Peshawar as it is located 200 kilometers from Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan. Peshawar is a major commercial hub.The city gave its name to the Peshawari naan bread, one of the diverse types of naan common in the curry restaurants of Britain.The history of Peshawar, a region of modern-day Pakistan, covers thousands of years. The region was dominated by various tribal groups of Indo-Iranian origin and a variety of other groups, possibly of Elamo-Dravidian origin, maybe prior to migration of Arian tribes and their settlement. The region had links to the Harappan civilization of the Indus river valley and to ancient Afghanistan (before it was called Afghanistan or even Ariana), especially the Kabul valley. The border known as the Durand Line was fixed by the British in 1893 and divided ethnic Pakhtun territories into two parts. As a result, many Pakhtuns have agitated for a re-unification of Afghanistan or Pakhtunistan. The resulting "Pakhtunistan" issue has often adversely impacted relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan, but the issue has largely become dormant since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the arrival and settlement of nearly 4 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan. Ancient historyIt has been argued that an ancient city named Pushkalwati, founded by Bharata's son Pushkal, from the Indian epic Ramayana, and may have existed in this general area during early Indo-Iranian times before their migration past the Indus into South Asia. The city that would become Peshawar, called Purushapura, was actually founded by the Kushans, a Central Asian tribe of Tocharian origin, over 2,000 years ago. Prior to this period the region was affiliated with Gandhara and was annexed first by the Persian Achaemenid Empire and then the Hellenic empire of Macedonian Alexander. The city passed into the rule of Alexander's successor, Seleucus I Nicator who ceded it to Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire. Buddhism was introduced into the region at this time and claimed the majority of Peshawar's inhabitants before the coming of Islam.The area that Peshawar occupies was then seized by the Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides I (c. 170 - c. 159 BCE), and was con

Tags:Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Afghanistan, Ariana, Asia, Britain, British, Capital, Gandhara, Greco, Indus, Iranian, Islam, Kabul, Macedonian Alexander, NATO, Nicator, Pakistan, Persian, Peshawar, Seleucus I Nicator, Soviet, US, United States




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