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|— City District —|
|(From top left to bottom right) Peshawar Museum, The famous Khyber gate (Bab-e-Khyber), Bala Hisar Fort, Khyber Pass, Chowk Yadgar at night, Provincial Assembly Building Peshawar, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Islamia College University|
|PeshawarLocation within Pakistan|
|Coordinates: 34°01′N 71°35′E / 34.017°N 71.583°E / 34.017; 71.583Coordinates: 34°01′N 71°35′E / 34.017°N 71.583°E / 34.017; 71.583|
|Asya Abbas (ANP)|
|1,257 km2 (485 sq mi)|
|Elevation||359 m (1,178 ft)|
|• Density||2,900/km2 (7,500/sq mi)|
Peshawar (Pashto: پېښور Pex̌awar; Hindko: پيشور Pishōr; Urdu: پشاور Pishāwar Urdu pronunciation (help·info)), also known as Pekhawar, is the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province), and the administrative centre and central economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Peshawar is situated in a large valley near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass, close to the Pak-Afghan border. Known as "City on the Frontier", Peshawar's strategic location on the crossroads of Central Asia and South Asia has made it one of the most culturally vibrant and lively cities in the greater region. Peshawar is irrigated by various canals of the Kabul River and by its right tributary, the Bara River.
Peshawar has evolved into one of Pakistan's most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities. In the last three decades, there has been a significant increase in urban population, in part due to internal migration of people in search of better employment opportunities, education, and services, and in part because of the influx of Afghans and other people displaced by military operations and civil unrest in neighboring regions. Peshawar is the major educational, political and business center of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central, South, and West Asia, Peshawar has for centuries been a centre of trade between Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. As an ancient centre of learning, the 2nd century BC. Bakhshali Manuscript used in the Bakhshali approximation was found nearby.
Vedic mythology refers to an ancient settlement called Pushkalavati in the area, after Pushkal, the son of King Bharata in the epic Ramayana. but this settlement's existence remains speculative and unverifiable. In recorded history, the earliest major city established in the general area of Peshawar was called Purushapura (Sanskrit for City of Men), from which the current name "Peshawar" may derive, and was founded by the Kushans, a Central Asian tribe of Tocharian origin, over 2,000 years ago.
The area that Peshawar occupies was then seized by the Greco-Bactrian king, Eucratides (170 – 159 BC), and was controlled by a series of Greco-Bactrian and later Indo-Greek kings who ruled an empire that spanned from present day Pakistan to North India. According to the historian Tertius Chandler, Peshawar had a population of 120,000 in the year 100 AD, making it the seventh most populous city in the world. Later, the city came under the rule of several Parthian and Indo-Parthian kings, another group of Iranic peoples germane to the region, the most famous of whom, Gondophares (Gandapur in Pashto), ruled the city and its environs starting in circa 46 AD, and was briefly followed by two or three of his descendants before they were displaced by the first of the "Great Kushans", Kujula Kadphises, around the middle of the 1st century AD.Ongoing excavation at Gorkhatri, said to be the world's 'biggest and deepest' which established Peshawar's chronological age as the 'Oldest Living City in South Asia' Gandharan Peshawar
The Kushan king Kanishka, who reigned from at least 127 AD, moved the capital from Pushkalavati (now called Charsadda in the Peshawar valley) to Purushapura (Peshawar) in the 2nd century AD, Buddhist missionaries arrived to Zoroastrian and animist Peshawar seeking counsel with the Zoroastrian Kushan rulers. Surprisingly, rather than being repelled, their teachings were embraced by the Zoroastrian Kushans, who converted to Buddhism and gave the religion official status in the city. Following this move by the Kushans, Peshawar became a great center of Buddhist learning even though Zoroastrianism and animism seem to have survived in the majority population (particularly the rural areas).
Kanishka however, who was now an ardent follower of Buddhism, built what may have been the tallest building in the world at the time, a giant stupa, to house the Buddha's relics, just outside the Ganj Gate of the old city of Peshawar. The Kanishka stupa was said to be an imposing structure as one travelled down from the mountains of Afghanistan onto the Gandharan plains. The earliest account of the famous building is by the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk, Faxian, who visited it in 400 and described it as being over 40 chang in height (probably about 120 m or 394 ft) and adorned "with all precious substances". "Of all the stûpas and temples seen by the travellers, none can compare with this for beauty of form and strength." It was destroyed by lightning and repaired several times. It was still in existence at the time of Xuanzang's visit in 634. From the ruined base of this giant stupa, there existed a jewelled casket containing relics of the Buddha, and an inscription identifying Kanishka as the donor, and was excavated from a chamber under the very centre of the stupa's base, by a team under Dr. D.,B. Spooner in 1909.Muslim invasions
The Pashtuns began to convert to Islam following early annexation by the Arab Empire from Khurasan (in what is today Afghanistan and northeastern Iran). In 1001, the Turkic ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire, Mahmud of Ghazni further expanded from Afghanistan into the Indian sub-continent.
|“||Sebuktagin dying in 997 was succeeded as governor of Khorasan by his son Mahmud, who throwing off all dependence on the Samani princes, assumed the title of Sultan in 999. In the early reign of this celebrated invader the plains of Peshawar were again the scene of some great battles, the first of which was fought on the maira between Nowshera and the Indus, in the year 1001. Mahmud was opposed by Hindu Shahi King Jayapala in the Battle of Peshawar (1001), who had been constantly endeavouring to recover the country wrested from him by Sebuktagin. still aided by some Pathans (also known as Pashtuns or Afghans) whose allegiance to the Muslim governor of Peshawar was not of long continuance. |
The battle took place on November 27. Jaipal himself being taken prisoner, who upon his subsequent release resigned the crown to his son Anandpal. On this occasion Mahmud punished the Pathans (also known as Pashtuns or Afghans) who had sided with the enemy, and as they were now converted entirely to the Islam, they stayed true to their new allegiance.
The Afghan (Pashtun) emperor Sher Shah Suri turned Peshawar's renaissance into a boom when he ran his Delhi-to-Kabul Shahi Road through the Khyber Pass and Peshawar in the 16th century. Peshawar was later incorporated into the larger Mughal domains by the 16th century. The founder of the Mughul dynasty that would conquer South Asia, Babur, who hailed from current Uzbekistan, came to Peshawar and founded a city called Bagram where he rebuilt the fort in 1530. His grandson, Akbar, formally named the city Peshawar, meaning "The Place at the Frontier" in Persian and expanded the bazaars and fortifications. The Muslim technocrat, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in South Asia and many settled in the Peshawar region. Thus the Mughals turned Peshawar into a "City of Flowers" by planting trees and laying out gardens similar to those found to the west in Iran. Khushal Khan Khattak, the Pashtun/Afghan warrior poet, was born near Peshawar and his life was intimately tied to the city. As an advocate for Afghan independence, he was an implacable foe of the Mughal rulers, especially Aurangzeb. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, by the 18th century the city came under Persian control during the reign of Nadir Shah.Interior of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque, built in 1630.
In 1747, following a loya jirga, Peshawar would join the Afghan Durrani Empire of Ahmad Shah Durrani. In 1776, Ahmad Shah's son Timur Shah Durrani chose Peshawar as his winter capital, and the Bala Hisar Fort in Peshawar was used as the residence of Afghan kings. Pashtuns from Peshawar took part in the incursions of South Asia during the Durrani Empire. Peshawar remained the winter capital until the Sikhs rose to power in the early nineteenth century.
Peshawar was briefly captured by the Maratha Empire of India who conquered the city in the Battle of Peshawar on May 8, 1758. A numerical large force of Durrani Afghans reconquered Peshawar in 1759.Sikh conquestFacades in Peshawar's Walled City, built in the 1830s
In 1812, Peshawar was controlled by Afghanistan, but contested by the Sikh Empire of Punjab. The arrival of a party led by British explorer and former agent of the East India Company, William Moorcroft was seen as an advantage, both in dealings with Kabul and in protection against the Sikhs of Lahore. He was even offered the governorship of Peshawar and invited to offer the area's allegiance to the East India Company, which he declined. Moorcroft continued to Kabul in the company of Peshawari forces and thence to the Hindu Kush. In 1818 Peshawar was captured by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and paid a nominal tribute until it was finally annexed in 1834 by the Sikh Empire, after which the city fell into steep decline. Many of Peshawar's famous Mughal gardens were destroyed by the Sikhs at this time. The Italian administrator acting on behalf of the Sikhs, Paolo Avitabile, ruled Peshawar under a reign of fear - his time is Peshawar is known as a time of "gallows and gibbets." The city's famous Mahabat Khan, built in 1630 in the Jeweler's Bazaar, was badly damaged and desecrated by the Sikh conquerors.
Sikhism was established in the region by the construction of Gurdwara Bhai Joga Singh and Gurdwara Bhai Beeba Singh by Hari Singh Nalwa. While the city's Sikh population drastically declined after the Partition of British India, Peshawar's Sikh community has re-established itself. Bolstered by Sikh refugees from Afghanistan, and by about 4,000 refugees from the Tribal Areas, the city now has the largest Sikh population in Pakistan. Sikhs in Peshawar self-identify as Pashtuns, and speak Pashto as their mother tongue.
An 1835 attempt to retake the city by Dost Mohammad Khan failed when his army declined battle with the Dal Khalsa. His son, Mohammad Akbar Khan, almost retook the city in the Battle of Jamrud in 1837, but was unsuccessful. Peshawar remained under the Sikh Maharajahs until they were vanquished by the British empire following the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849.Peshawar under the British Raj
Following the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, Peshawar was incorporated into British India. During the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the 4,000 members of the native garrison were disarmed without bloodshed, thus sparing Peshawar widespread devastation that was experienced throughout the rest of British India. Local chieftains sided with the British after this decisive incident. The mountainous areas outside of the city were mapped out in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand, foreign secretary of the British Indian government, who demarcated the boundary of British controlled areas with the Afghan ruler at the time, Abdur Rahman Khan.
The British laid-out the vast Peshawar Cantonment to the west of the city in 1868, and made the city their frontier headquarters. Additionally, they initiated several projects in Peshawar, including linkage of the city by railway to the rest of British India and the renovation of the mosque of Mohabbat Khan that was desecrated by the Sikhs. The British also constructed Cunningham clock tower in celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, and constructed Victoria Hall (now home of the Peshawar Museum) in 1906 in memory of Queen Victoria. The British contributed greatly to the establishment of Western-style education in Peshawar with the establishment of Edwardes College and Islamia College in 1901 and 1913, respectively - in addition to the establishment of numerous schools, many of which are run by the Anglican Church.Peshawar Museum
Peshawar emerged as a centre of both Hindko and Pashtun intellectuals. Its dominant culture for much of British rule was that of the Hindko speakers, also referred to as "Khaarian" ('city dwellers' in Pashto). Peshawar was the scene of non-violent resistance headed by Ghaffar Khan, a disciple of Mohandas Gandhi. In April 1930, Khan led a large group of locals peacefully protesting in Qissa Khawani Bazaar against discriminatory laws enacted by the British - up to 400 people were killed when British forces opened fire on the demonstrators.Modern PeshawarOld PeshawarBoard Bazaar
In 1947, Peshawar became part of the newly created Pakistan after politicians from the Frontier approved merger into the state. While a large majority of people approved of this action, a small minority believed that South Asians could form a confederation, such as Abdul Ghaffar Khan. However, the call for a united India was deeply unpopular with the locals, who did not identify at all as Indians. Still others believed that the province should have ascended to Afghanistan – a position which later evolved into a call for the creation of Pashtunistan, a state independent of both Pakistan and Afghanistan.
A segment of the region's populace believed that the province should have been given the option to be fully incorporated into Afghanistan in 1947 - a stance which various Afghan governments actively supported. In attempt to take advantage of Pakistan's post-independence instability, Afghanistan crafted a two-fold strategy to destabilize the NWFP. Firstly, it strongly aligned itself with Pakistan's rival, India, and also the USSR, which later invaded Afghanistan. Secondly, it politically and financially back secessionist leaders in the NWFP in the 1960s. Afghanistan's policies severely strained Pakistan-Afghanistan relations in the 1960s up until the 1970s, when the movement largely subsided as the population came to thoroughly identify with Pakistan, although resentment against the Punjabi elite continued to foster. Pashtun assimilation into the Pakistani state followed years of rising Pashtun influence in Pakistani politics and bureaucracy, and culminated with the Ayub Khan, a Pashtun, being installed as President of Pakistan. The largest nationalist part of the time, the ANP, dropped a secessionist agenda, and openly embraced the Pakistani state, leaving only the small and relatively insignificant Pakhtunkhwa Millat Party to champion to cause of independence from both Pakistan and Afghanistan. Despite the weaknesses of the early secessionist movement, it still negatively influences Pakistan-Afghanistan relations until the present day, and casts a shadow on the province's politics.
Until the mid-1950s, Peshawar was enclosed within a city wall and sixteen gates. Of the old city gates, the most famous was the Kabuli Gate but only the name remains to this date. Peshawar has not grown as much in size or capacity as the population has. As a result it has become a polluted and overcrowded city.
During the 1980s Soviet war in Afghanistan, Peshawar served as a political centre for the CIA and Inter-Services Intelligence-trained mujahideen groups based in Afghan refugees, such as at the Jalozai refugee camp. Soviet agents often infiltrated these organizations, and violence often erupted on Peshawar's streets as it was the scene of a proxy war between Soviet agents and US-backed insurgents.
There were a total of about 100,000 Afghan refugees registered in Peshawar during the 1988 election when Benazir Bhutto was running for Prime Minister of Pakistan, although hundreds of thousands more were in the city illegally. Peshawar managed to assimilate many of the ethnic Pashtun Afghans with relative ease and many of them still remain in Pakistan illegally.
Peshawar continues to be a city that links Pakistan with Afghanistan as well as Central Asia, and has emerged as an important regional city in Pakistan. It remains a focal point for Pashtun culture. Today, like the surrounding region, it is at the crossroads of the struggle between the extremist Taliban and moderates, liberals and Pashtun nationalists. As a demonstration of their determination to destroy Pashtun icons, the Taliban bombed the shrine of the Pashtun poet Rahman Baba in 2009.Geography and climate Geography
Peshawar is situated near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass and sits mainly on the Iranian plateau along with the rest of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.
The Vale of Peshawar is covered with consolidated deposits of silt, sands and gravel of recent geological times. The flood Plains/Zones are the areas between Kabul River and Budni Nala. The meander flood plain extends from Warsak in the Northwest towards Southeast in the upper Northern half of the district. The Kabul river enters the district in the Northwest. On entering the Peshawar Plain, the Kabul River is divided into several channels. Its two main channels are the Adizai River Eastward flows along the boundary with Charsadda District. Another channel branching from the right bank of the Naguman River is the Shah Alam, which again merges with Naguman River further in the East. In general the sub-soil strata is composed of gravels, boulders, and sands overlain by silts and clays. Sand, gravel and boulders are important aquifer extends to a depth of about 200 feet (61 m). As further confined water bearing aquifer occurs at depths greater than 400 feet (120 m).Climate Main article: Climate of Peshawar
Peshawar features a semi-arid climate with very hot summers and mild winters. Winter in Peshawar starts in mid November and ends in late March. Summer months are May to September. The mean maximum temperature in summer surpasses 40 °C (104 °F) during the hottest month and the mean minimum temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). The mean minimum temperature during winter is 4 °C (39 °F) and maximum is 18.35 °C (65.03 °F).
Peshawar is not a monsoon region, unlike other parts of Pakistan. But still rainfall is received both in winter and in the summer. The winter rainfall due to western disturbances shows a higher record during the months of February and April. The highest winter rainfall of 236 millimetres (9.3 in) was recorded in February 2007, while the highest summer rainfall of 402 millimetres (15.8 in) has been recorded in the month of July 2010. In which a record breaking rain of 274 millimetres (10.8 in) fell during 24 hours on July 29, 2010. previously 187 mm (7.36 inches) of rain was recorded in April 2009. The average winter rainfall is higher than that of the summer. Based on a 30-year record, the average annual precipitation was recorded as 400 millimetres (16 in).The highest annual rainfall of 904.5 millimetres (35.61 in) was recorded in 2003. Wind speeds vary during the year from 5 knots (5.8 mph; 9.3 km/h) in December to 24 knots (28 mph; 44 km/h) in June. The relative humidity varies from 46% in June to 76% in August. The highest temperature of 50 °C (122 °F) was recorded on June 18, 1995, while the lowest −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) occurred on January 7, 1970.
|18.3 (64.9)||19.5 (67.1)||23.7 (74.7)||30.0 (86.0)||35.9 (96.6)||40.4 (104.7)||37.7 (99.9)||35.7 (96.3)||35.0 (95.0)||31.2 (88.2)||25.6 (78.1)||20.1 (68.2)||29.4 (84.9)|
|4.0 (39.2)||6.3 (43.3)||11.2 (52.2)||16.4 (61.5)||21.3 (70.3)||25.7 (78.3)||26.6 (79.9)||25.7 (78.3)||22.7 (72.9)||16.1 (61.0)||9.6 (49.3)||4.9 (40.8)||15.9 (60.6)|
|26.0 (1.024)||42.7 (1.681)||78.4 (3.087)||48.9 (1.925)||27.0 (1.063)||7.7 (0.303)||42.3 (1.665)||67.7 (2.665)||17.9 (0.705)||9.7 (0.382)||12.3 (0.484)||23.3 (0.917)||403.9 (15.902)|
Peshawar is a rapidly growing city with a population of 2,982,816 in 1998. The current population growth rate is 3.29% per year, which is higher than the average of many other Pakistani cities.
Peshawar's inhabitants consist mainly of Pashtun and Hindkowans. In addition, tens of thousands of Punjabis, Chitralis, Gypsies, Tajiks, Uzbeks and Hazaras can be found in the city. Languages such as Pashto, Urdu, Persian/Dari, Hindko, Khowar, Saraiki and Punjabi are spoken in Peshawar, although only Urdu and English, with Pashto and Persian to a much smaller extent, are found as written languages in the city.
In 2002, on the growth rate of 3.56% population doubled in 20 years from 1.1 million in 1981 to 2.242 million in 2002. Peshawar District covers a large area extending over 50 kilometres (31 mi) from north to south and over 30 kilometres (19 mi) from east to west. It is situated at an altitude of 359 m (1,138 ft) above sea level. The Peshawar valley is nearly circular, extending from the Indus to the Khyber Hills. It is bounded on the North and North East by hills, which separate it from the Swat Valley. In the Northwest are the rugged mountains of Khyber and to the South is the continuation of spur which branches off from Safed Koh (the famous white mountain on the Afghan border) and runs to Indus. The lower portion of this branch separates the district of Peshawar and Kohat.Sunehri Mosque
Over 99% of the city's population is Muslim, mostly Sunnis with Twelver Shias and Ahmadis as the minority. Despite the overwhelmingly Islamic nature of modern Peshawar, the city was previously home to diverse communities such as Hindus, Sikhs, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Bahá'ís. There is still a significant number of Sikhs, and smaller communities of Hindus and Christians.Culture
Peshawar is the centre of culture of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Its culture has evolved over the years and has been principally influenced by Ghandhara culture, Pakhtun culture and Hindko culture. Although the province in which Peshawar is located has predominantly Pakhtun population however Peshawar itself till 1980s had predominantly Hindko speaking population. These Hindko speaking people are anicient inhabitants of the land. Although Pakhtun and Hindko culture have many things in common but since the Hindko speaking people are mostly urbanites whereas majority of Pakhtuns until recently came from rural background therefore the customs of these two differ in some respects like marriage ceremonies, living style, etc.
With the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s and the influx of Afghan refugees into Pakistan, Peshawar became home for many Afghan musicians and artists. The city has become the centre for Pashto music and cinema as well Dari music for the Tajiks. There is also a thriving book publishing activity in the Persian language in Peshawar, concentrated primarily on Islamic Shia literature and located in the Qissa Khawani Bazaar .Sethi Mohallah
However, the election of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) Islamic coalition in 2002 resulted in restrictions on public musical performances, as well as a ban on playing recorded music on public transports. Peshawar has become host to a thriving underground scene. In 2008, the secular Awami National Party (ANP) swept elections and won power from the Islamic coalition. Since then, some restrictions have been lifted, but there has not been a full restoration of the liberties guaranteed before the MMA victory in 2002.
The historic old city of Peshawar was once a heavily guarded citadel with high walls. Today, not much remains of the walls, but the houses and havelis have an essence of days gone by. Most of the houses are made of unbaked bricks with wooden structures for protection against earthquakes. Many of them have beautifully carved wooden doors and latticed wooden balconies. Areas such as Sethi Mohallah still contain many fine examples of the old architecture of Peshawar. There are many historic monuments and bazaars in the Old city, including the Mohabbat Khan Mosque and Kotla Mohsin Khan, Chowk Yadgar and the Qissa Khawani Bazaar. This part of inner Peshawar has been damaged by rapid growth and development and is in need of urgent protection.
The walled city was surrounded by several main gates which served as the main entry points into the city, some of which still survive today. They include: Lahori Gate, Sarasia Gate, Ganj Gate, Sirki Gate, Sard Chah Gate, Kohati Gate Former Gates which were demolished during wars were Kabuli Gate, Berikian Gate, Bajori Gate, Yakatut Gate, Dabgari Gate, Kachahri Gate, and Hasht Nagri Gate.Educational institutionsIslamia College UniversityMain articles: List of educational institutions in Peshawar and List of universities in Peshawar
Peshawar is the hub of some of the top quality educational institutes. It houses huge number of schools, colleges and universities. Notably, the University of Peshawar (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. Edwardes College which was founded in 1900 by Herbert Edwardes is the oldest college in the province. List of some of the universities in Peshawar both Public and Private is below.
For complete list, click on the linksMain articles: List of educational institutions in Peshawar and List of universities in Peshawar
.LandmarksClock Tower of Peshawar city known as "Ghanta Ghar" (Clock Home) in UrduFlower work inside Mohabbat Khan MosquePeshawar is known for its dry fruits. This is one of the vendors in Namak MandiFruit vendors selling local melons
Peshawar is one of the oldest cities of the world. It is a conservative Islamic city with a rich history. It offers everything from goldsmiths and silversmiths, traditional carpets (one of the big exports of Pakistan today), pottery, and clothing to artwork in wood, brass or semi-precious stones. The old walled city was known for its 16 gates: Hashtnagri, Lahori, Ganj, Yakka Thoot, Kohati, Sirki, Sard Chah, Beriskian, Ramdas, Dabgari, Bajouri, Kabuli, Asamai, Kachehri, Reti and Rampura Gate. The names given to these gates are significant. It was Sikh General Avitabile who built a mud wall surrounding the city. Under the British nearly the whole of the enclosure wall had been built of pucca brick. There are many bazaars with different goods and souvenirs for travellers. The main ones include the historic Qissa Khawani Bazaar, the Copper market, Chowk Yadgar and Andarsheher Bazaar. In addition because of its access to the Khyber pass, the Khyber Train Safari starts from here.
There are numerous public and private hospitals operating in Peshawar city. Some of the notable hospitals are highlighted below.
The main transport infrastructure in Peshawar is provided by an international airport (served by all Pakistani airlines and several major foreign airlines), a major railway station (operated by Pakistan Railways), and links to several highways including the Grand Trunk Road and the Karakoram Highway, enabling road, rail and air connections to all Pakistani cities as well as neighbouring countries like Afghanistan and China. Within the city, there are several methods of travel available including coaches, buses, auto rickshaws, and taxis.SportArbab Niaz Stadium
Arbab Niaz Stadium is the Test Cricket ground of Peshawar. Other stadiums are Army Stadium, Peshawar Club Ground and Qayyum Stadium. Cricket is the most popular sport in Peshawar. Peshawar is home of the Faysal Bank T20 Cup team Peshawar Panthers. Hockey and Squash are the other popular sports here.Notable Sport-stars
The Book The Peshawar Lancers is set in Peshawar.Sister cities