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    * Booyeh *

    Bouyeh,Buyid Dynasty

    بویه ، آل بویه

    One of the first Iranian Dynasties that ruled over a great part of Iran after the fall of the Sassanid Empire was the Ale-Booyeh Dynasty.The Buyid dynasty, also known as the Buyid Empire or the Buyids also known as Buwaihids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, were a Shia Persian dynasty that originated from Deylaman in Gilan. They founded a confederation that controlled most of modern-day Iran and Iraq in the 10th and 11th centuries.The founders of the Booyeh confederation were Ali Ibn Booyeh and his two younger brothers, al-Hassan and Aḥmad. Originally a soldier in the service of the Ziyarids of Ṭabarestan, Alī was able to recruit an army to defeat a Turkish general from Baghdad named Yaqut in 934. Over the next nine years the three brothers gained control of the remainder of the Abbasid Caliphate. While they accepted the titular authority of the caliph in Baghdad, the Booyeh rulers assumed effective control of the state.The first several decades of the Booyeh confederation were characterized by large territorial gains. In addition to Fars and Jibal, which were conquered in the 930s, and central Iraq, which submitted in 945, the Booyehs took Kerman (967), Oman (967), the Jazira (979), Ṭabarestan (980), and Gorgan (981). After this, however, the Booyehs went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation gradually breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent.The approximate century of Booyeh rule, coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, represents a period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Arabs and the Seljuk Turks. Indeed, as Deylami Iranians the Booyehs consciously revived symbols and practices of Persia's Sassanid dynasty. In fact, beginning with Adudal-Dawla they used the ancient Sassanid title Shahanshah, literally "king of kings".The Buyid confederation was split between and governed by multiple members of the dynasty. They nominally recognized the suzerainty of caliphs of Baghdad, who in reality had no temporal power within the state. The title used by the Buyid rulers was Amir, meaning "governor" or "prince". Generally one of the Amirs would be recognized as having seniority over the others; this individual would use the title of amir al-Omara, or senior Amir. Although the senior Amir was the formal head of the Booyehs, he did not usually have any significant control outside of his own personal amirate; each amir enjoyed a high degree of autonomy within his own territories. As mentioned above, some of the stronger Amirs used the Sassanid title of Shahanshah. Succession of power was hereditary, with fathers dividing their land among their sons.The Booyeh army consisted of their fellow Deylamian Iranians, who served as foot soldiers, and of the Turkish cavalry that had played a prominent role in the Abbasid military. The Deylamian and Turks often quarreled with each other in an attempt to be the dominant force within the army. To compensate their soldiers the Booyeh Amirs often distributed iqta's, or the rights to a percentage of tax revenues from a province, although the practice o

    Tags:Abbasid, Abbasid Caliphate, Baghdad, Booyeh, Caliphate, Deylaman, Deylami, Deylamian, Dynasty, Fars, Gilan, Gorgan, Ibn, Iran, Iranian, Iraq, Jibal, Kerman, Oman, Persia, Persian, Sassanid, Seljuk, Shahanshah, Shia

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