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    Eternal Flame

    آتش جاویدان

    An eternal flame constantly tended by a dedicated priest is a feature of Zoroastrianism.Three "Great Fires" existed in the Achaemenid era of Persian history, which are collectively the earliest evidence of the Eternal Fire. (Wikipedia) - Eternal flame   (Redirected from Eternal Fire) For other uses, see Eternal flame (disambiguation).Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin eternal flame memorializing losses during World War Two.Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Moscow Kremlin Wall.

    An eternal flame is a flame, lamp or torch that burns continuously for an indefinite period. Most eternal flames are ignited and tended intentionally, but some are natural phenomena caused by natural gas leaks, peat fires and coal seam fires, all of which can be initially ignited by lightning, piezoelectricity or human activity, and all of which can burn for decades or centuries.

    In ancient times, human-tended eternal flames were fueled by wood or olive oil; modern examples usually use a piped supply of propane or natural gas. Eternal flames most often commemorate a person or event of national significance, or serve as a reminder of commitment to a common goal, such as international peace.


    Religious and cultural significance

    The eternal fire is a long-standing tradition in many cultures and religions. In ancient Iran the atar was tended by a dedicated priest and represented the concept of "divine sparks" or amesha spenta, as understood in Zoroastrianism. Period sources indicate that three "great fires" existed in the Achaemenid era of Persian history, which are collectively considered the earliest reference to the practice of creating ever-burning community fires.

    The eternal flame was a component of the Jewish religious rituals performed in the Tabernacle and later in the Temple in Jerusalem, where a commandment required a fire to burn continuously upon the Outer Altar. Modern Judaism continues a similar tradition by having a sanctuary lamp, the ner tamid, always lit above the ark in the synagogue. After World War II, such flames gained meaning as a reminder of the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust.

    The Cherokee Nation maintained a fire at the seat of government until ousted by the Indian Removal Act in 1830. At that time, embers from the last great council fire were carried west to the nation''s new home in the Oklahoma Territory. The flame, maintained in Oklahoma, was carried back to the last seat of the Cherokee government at Red Clay State Park in south-eastern Tennessee, to the Museum of the Cherokee Indian in Cherokee, North Carolina, and to the Cherokee Nation Tribal Complex in Talequah, Oklahoma.

    In China, it has at times been common to establish an eternally lit lamp as a visible aspect of ancestor veneration; it is set in front of a spirit tablet on the family''s ancestral altar.

    The eternal flame commemorating American President John F. Kennedy after his assassination in 1963 is believed to be the first such memorial to honor a single, known individual (as opposed to flames commemorating one or more unknown soldiers). In the wake of the Kennedy memorial, eternal flames have been used throughout the world to honor persons of national or international significance.

    Around the world ExtinguishedA prismatically broken eternal flame at World War II memorial in East Berlin. Current (man-made) Europe Belarus Bosnia and HerzegovinaEternal Flame in Sarajevo France Germany Ireland Italy Netherlands Poland Portugal Russia Spain UkraineEternal Flame in Vinnytsia Elsewhere North America Canada United States Eternal flame war memorial in Bowman, South Carolina Mexico NicaraguaVisitors drop flowers as they pay their respects at the tomb of Carlos Fonseca Amador at the Plaza de la Revolución (Revolution Square) in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Tomb of Carlos Fonseca in the Central Park of Managua.

    South AmericaThe Pira da Liberdade, Brazilian eternal flame, in São PauloArgentina Brazil Colombia AustraliaEternal flame in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia''s Shrine of Remembrance Asia India Israel JapanPeace Flame at the Peace Memorial Museum in Hiroshima, Japan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Nepal Philippines South Korea Turkmenistan Africa Ghana Zimbabwe South Africa Naturally fuelledFires of Chimera at Mount Chimaera, Çıralı, Turkey"The Door to Hell" gas deposit, nearby Derweze, Turkmenistan, has been burning since 1971.

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