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    * Fathali Shah *

    Baba Khan

    فتحفلی شاه ، بابا خان


    Qajar_Ziaossaltaneh_Wife_Fathali_Shah.jpg
    Fathali Shah (Sep, 5, 1772 Damghan - Oct, 23, 1834 Isfahan)second Qajar king who reigned for 36 years and 8 months (from 17 June 1797 until his death in 1834) He had 158 wives in his Harem and had 260 children.Fathali Shah was the son of Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar, brother of Agha Mohammad Khan. He was governor of Fars when his uncle was assassinated in 1797. Fathali shah's real name was "Bābā Khān" but he was crowned as Fathali Shah. He became suspicious of his chancellor Hajji Ebrahim Khan Kalantar and ordered his execution. Hajji Ebrahim Khan had been chancellor to Zand and Qajar rulers for some fifteen years.Much of his reign was marked by the resurgence of Persian arts and painting, as well as a deeply elaborate court culture with extremely rigid etiquette. In particular during his reign, portraiture and large-scale oil painting reached a height previously unknown under any other Islamic dynasty, largely due to his personal patronage.Fathali also ordered the creation of much royal regalia, including coronations chairs, "Takht-e-Tavoos" or Peacock throne and "Takht-e-Naderī" Naderi throne, which was also used by later kings, and the "Taj-e-Kīyanī" or Kiani Crown, a modification of the crown of the same name created by his uncle Agha Mohammad Khan. This, like most of his regalia, was studded with a large number of pearls and gems.During the early reign of Fathali Shah, Imperial Russia took control of Georgia claimed by the Persians. The war broke between Persia and Russia when Fathali Shah ordered the invasion of Georgia in 1804, under pressure from the Shiite clergy, who were urging a war against Russia. The war began with notable victories for the Persians, but Russia shipped in advanced weaponry and cannons that disadvantaged the technologically inferior Qajar forces, which did not have artillery to match. Russia continued with a major campaign against Persia; Persia asked for help from Britain on the grounds of a military agreement with that country (the military agreement was signed after the rise of Napoleon in France). However, Britain refused to help Persia claiming that the military agreement concerned a French attack not Russian. The naïve Qajar court did not understand that it was being manipulated and was soon becoming a victim of a European conspiracy.Persia had to ask for help from France, sending an ambassador to Napoleon and concluding a Franco-Persian alliance with the signature of the Treaty of Finkenstein. However, just when the French were ready to help Persia, Napoleon made peace with Russia. At this time, John Malcolm arrived in Persia and promised support but Britain later changed its mind and asked Persia to retreat. Russian troops invaded Tabriz in 1813 and Persia was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan with Russia.On account of consecutive defeats of Persia and after the fall of Lankaran on 1 January 1813, Shah was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan. The text of treaty was prepared by a British diplomat; Sir Gore Ouseley; and was signed by NiShah (Sep, 5, 1772 Damghan - Oct, 23, 1834 Isfahan)second Qajar king who reigned for 36 years and 8 months (from 17 June 1797 until his death in 1834) He had 158 wives in his Harem and had 260 children.Fathali Shah was the son of Hossein Qoli Khan Qajar, brother of Agha Mohammad Khan. He was governor of Fars when his uncle was assassinated in 1797. Fathali shah's real name was "Bābā Khān" but he was crowned as Fathali Shah. He became suspicious of his chancellor Hajji Ebrahim Khan Kalantar and ordered his execution. Hajji Ebrahim Khan had been chancellor to Zand and Qajar rulers for some fifteen years.Much of his reign was marked by the resurgence of Persian arts and painting, as well as a deeply elaborate court culture with extremely rigid etiquette. In particular during his reign, portraiture and large-scale oil painting reached a height previously unknown under any other Islamic dynasty, largely due to his personal patronage.Fathali also ordered the creation of much royal regalia, including coronations chairs, "Takht-e-Tavoos" or Peacock throne and "Takht-e-Naderī" Naderi throne, which was also used by later kings, and the "Taj-e-Kīyanī" or Kiani Crown, a modification of the crown of the same name created by his uncle Agha Mohammad Khan. This, like most of his regalia, was studded with a large number of pearls and gems.During the early reign of Fathali Shah, Imperial Russia took control of Georgia claimed by the Persians. The war broke between Persia and Russia when Fathali Shah ordered the invasion of Georgia in 1804, under pressure from the Shiite clergy, who were urging a war against Russia. The war began with notable victories for the Persians, but Russia shipped in advanced weaponry and cannons that disadvantaged the technologically inferior Qajar forces, which did not have artillery to match. Russia continued with a major campaign against Persia; Persia asked for help from Britain on the grounds of a military agreement with that country (the military agreement was signed after the rise of Napoleon in France). However, Britain refused to help Persia claiming that the military agreement concerned a French attack not Russian. The naïve Qajar court did not understand that it was being manipulated and was soon becoming a victim of a European conspiracy.Persia had to ask for help from France, sending an ambassador to Napoleon and concluding a Franco-Persian alliance with the signature of the Treaty of Finkenstein. However, just when the French were ready to help Persia, Napoleon made peace with Russia. At this time, John Malcolm arrived in Persia and promised support but Britain later changed its mind and asked Persia to retreat. Russian troops invaded Tabriz in 1813 and Persia was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan with Russia.On account of consecutive defeats of Persia and after the fall of Lankaran on 1 January 1813, Shah was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan. The text of treaty was prepared by a British diplomat; Sir Gore Ouseley; and was signed by Nikola

    Tags:Agha Mohammad Khan, Britain, British, Damghan, Fars, Fathali Shah, Finkenstein, France, French, Georgia, Gore Ouseley, Gulistan, Harem, Isfahan, Islamic, John Malcolm, Khan, Kiani, Napoleon, Persia, Persian, Qajar, Russia, Russian, Shah, Shiite, Tabriz, Zand


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