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Shah Seeks Refuge At Russian Embassy

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July, 16, 1909 A.D.:
Shah Seeks Refuge At Russian Embassy

By: Mir M.Hosseini

Mohammad Ali Shah had lost all local support. His last hope was the Russian military to suppress the Constitutional Monarchy Movement. After a long siege that led to famine, Russian forces captured Tabriz on April, 29, 1909. Meanwhile, Mojahedin forces advanced towards Tehran from Rasht and took Qazvin under control. Concurrently Bakhtiari tribal forces headed by Samsamossaltaneh and Sardar Asad succeeded in defeating Cossacks on their way to Tehran. Although Tabriz seemed to be contained, Mojahedin reached Tehran by July, 1909. Colonel Liakhoff also was defeated and he had to flee to Russia.
Mohammad Ali Shah sought refuge at the Russian embassy in Tehran on July, 16. From there, he fled to Russia. Russians sent more troops to Iran and captured Tabriz, Mashhad, Qazvin, Rasht and Anzali. In order to facilitate logistics, they quickly completed an extension from Caucasia railway to Jolfa. All Russian efforts to reinstall the Shah proved futile and Mohammad Ali Shah's son, who was only 13 years old ascended the throne. Azadolmolk, the Qajar tribal leader was appointed as regent until the young Ahmad Shah would reach legal age.

KEY TERMS:Ahmad Shah , Anzali , Azad , Azadolmolk , Bakhtiar , Bakhtiari , Caucasia , Constitution , Constitutional Monarchy , Constitutional Monarchy Movement , Cossack , Iran , Jolfa , Liakhoff , Mashhad , Mohammad Ali Shah , Mojahedin , Monarchy , Qajar , Qazvin , Rasht , Russia , Russian , Samsamossaltaneh , Sardar Asad , Shah , Tabriz , Tehran

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