By: Mir M.Hosseini
After the Bolshevik revolution in Oct, 1917 and collapse of Czar Empire, some Iranians expected a friendlier attitude from the newly founded U.S.S.R., at least by annulling the imposed Turkmenchai Treaty. However, the Bolsheviks dreamt of expanding their bloody empire under the red flag.
After bombing Anzali for several days, with the pretext of British presence supporting white Russian anti-revolutionaries, the Red Army used the unstable situation in Tehran and occupied Anzali. They founded the Red Revolution Committee of Gilan on June, 7, 1920 thinking that Tehran was too busy with internal struggles to respond.
However, Mirza Kouchak Khan organized his Interim Revolutionary government in Gilan and in a declaration, they prepared for war. Iran filed a complaint with the Nations League which did not bring any favorable outcome as the Soviets reserved the right to stay in Iranian soil as long as the British forces did so!
Finally, under pressure, on Dec, 14, 1921 Majlis approved a Treaty with Bolsheviks that endorsed Gulistan and Turkmenchai treaties, leaving the territory above the Aras River to the Soviets. In return, the Soviets accepted to leave occupied territories in northern Iran. The treaty which consisted of 26 items left the rights the roads inside Iran to Iran !
For some people, it is very hard to understand how Iranians acted so weakly against the enemy. The chaos that followed the despotic Qajar rule which stalled intellectual, industrial and military progress for many years explains a lot. Shortly after Iran was getting acquainted to parliamentary system and Constitutional Monarchy, the British backed Coup d'état Of Reza Khan in 1921 plunged the country into another period of dictatorship until 1953, just when Iranians were getting a taste of independence and democracy, a CIA/MI6 backed coup toppled the popular Mosaddegh regime.