By: Mir M.Hosseini
Following the assassination of Naseroddin Shah on May 1, 1896, Chaos broke loose as different factions sought to take power, and mobs rampaged in the streets. The police were unable to control them and the regular army could not be relied upon to do so. The Qajar Vezir, Aminossoltan gave the Cossack brigade full authority to act as necessary. They quickly mobilized and then took control of Tehran in order to keep order in the city.
On June, 7, 1896 Mozaffaroddin Shah escorted by the Cossacks entered Tehran. The Brigade on this date established themselves as kingmakers in Iran, and in the future would serve as important tools for both the Russians and the Shah in maintaining control of Iran. The Russian influence insider Persia expanded tremendously as the Cossacks was able to exert massive control in internal Persian politics and intrigues.
At Mozaffaroddin Shah's accession Iran faced a financial crisis, with annual governmental expenditures far in excess of revenues due to the policies of his father. During his reign, Mozaffaroddin Shah attempted some reforms of the central treasury; however, the previous debt incurred by the Qajar court, owed to both England and Russia undermined this effort significantly. He had to make up the existing deficit by contracting more unpopular loans from Russia, which exacted political concessions in return.
Nevertheless, Mozaffaroddin Shah signed the decree that approved Constitutional Monarchy which was a great turn in the Iranian history and led to creation of the Iranian constitution. He is also credited with the start of Iranian Cinema, and the first Iranian national anthem. He is often remembered as a largely ineffectual ruler who often suffered from ill health.