By: Mir M.Hosseini
The Treaty of Erzurum was indeed a set of two treaties in 1823 and 1847 that settled boundary disputes between the Ottoman Empire and Iran. Although the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639 had established the boundary between Ottoman Empire and Iran, the border in the mountainous Zuhab region remained a site of intermittent conflict in the subsequent two centuries.
Attacks from Iran into Ottoman territory prompted Sultan Mahmoud 2. in 1821 to declare war on Iran. Fathali Shah Qajar’s army, commanded by Abbas Mirza had initial success and marched east as far as Diyarbakir in the south and Erzurum in the north. The first Treaty of Erzurum was signed in July 1823, but it essentially confirmed the 1639 border and thus failed to resolve the disputes that had led to conflict. A series of border incidents in the 1830s again brought Iran and Ottomans to the brink of war. Britain and Russia offered to mediate, and a second Treaty was signed on June, 2 1847 in Erzurum.
The Iranian delegate was headed by Mirza Taghi Khan Amirnezam and Nuri Efendi represented the Ottoman side. This treaty divided the disputed region between Iran and Turkey and provided for a boundary commission to delimit the entire border. The boundary commission's work encountered several political setbacks but signed a protocol in Istanbul 1913 and finally completed its task in 1914. The protocol was final on land borders and disputes related to Arvand Rood.
Ottoman rule ended with World War I, and Iraq came to be administered by the British Empire until the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq in 1932 after which territorial disputes started again.