By: Mir M.Hosseini
Pursuing the Afghan invaders, in 1738, Nader Shah conquered Kandahar, the last outpost of the Hotaki dynasty. His thoughts now turned to the Mughal Empire of India for nurturing Hotaki fugitives.
Nader Shah's conquest of India began with the Battle of Karnal which was a decisive victory for the Iranian army. Nader Shah defeated the army of Mohammad Shah on Feb, 13, 1739. The Mughal emperor lost the battle in little more than three hours thus paving the way for the Persians to conquer Delhi. The battle took place at Karnal, 110 kilometers north of Delhi, India.
The Mughals main advantage was their war elephants therefore Nader Khan used fire and sharp-shooters to blind the elephants which fled causing mayhem in their own camp.
The size of the Indian army was twice that of Nader Shah's but Nader was a genius in war tactics. Thus, Mughal forces began to disintegrate as they proved incapable of responding to Persian attacks on their lines.
After their general Saadat Khan was taken captive, Mughals started to loot their own camp while the Persian cavalry was inflicting great damages on loyal soldiers until the Mughal Emperor was captured by the Persians.
Delhi surrendered and Nader Shah entered the city on Norooz day on March, 21, 1739. Nader spared the life of Mohammad Shah and the civilians although he was ruthless on remaining Hotaki bandits. His soldiers brought back some of treasures that was plundered during the Hotaki invasion including the Peacock Throne, jewels, and precious Persian artworks such as Miremad calligraphy.
Nader Shah restore Mohammad Shah to his throne and left India soon after.