By: Mir M.Hosseini
The Treaty of Istanbul of 1590 or Treaty of Constantinople also known as Treaty of Farhad Pasha was a treaty between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia after a long war between 1577 and 1589. (Signed on the 21. of May 1590)
The war began in Southern Caucasus. At the Battle of childir, the Ottoman army defeated the Persian army and invaded most of South Caucasus. After Ottoman army returned to its main base in Istanbul, however, Persians began to regain some of their former territories. During the next phase, another Ottoman army (mostly composed of Crimean Tatars) arrived and Ottomans were able to attack once more. In 1583 after the battle named Battle of Torches so called because the battle continued during the night, Ottomans were able to re-conquer South Caucasus. During the next six years the only important event was the conquest of Tabriz by the Ottomans. Confronted by other problems (i.e., civil wars and the war against Uzbeks), Shah Abbas 1. of Persia agreed to sign a treaty with unfavorable terms.
According to the treaty of Istanbul, Ottoman Empire kept its gains in the war. These included most of Caucasus (present day Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) as well as Tabriz and north-west Iran. Persians also agreed to pay obeisance to religious leaders of Sunni faith.
This treaty was a big success for the Ottoman Empire, for vast areas had been annexed. However, it was not long lasting. Abbas 1., after solving problems at home, waited for a suitable moment to regain his former possessions. When Ottoman Empire was engaged in Jalali revolts he was able to regain most of his loses which Ottoman Empire had to accept in the treaty of Nasuh Pasha, 22 years after the treaty of Istanbul.