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Persian-Ottoman Peace Treaty

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January, 10, 1732 A.D.:
Persian-Ottoman Peace Treaty

By: Mir M.Hosseini

There was a peace treaty signed on January, 10, 1732 between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Persia.
In the 17th century, a stalemate between the Ottoman and Safavid empires had been reached by the treaties of Sarab and Zuhab. However, during the short rule of Afghanistan based Hotaki dynasty, chaos in Iran resulted in clashes along frontiers, especially in Caucasus. Meanwhile, Peter 1 of Russia began to occupy North Caucasus and Azerbaijan. Fearing a Russian controlled Caucasus, the Ottomans decided to capture Tbilisi to balance the Russian advance. But this operation resulted in a long Ottoman Safavid war.
Between 1723 and 1730, the Ottomans were able to control South Caucasus by capturing Erivan and Ganjeh in addition to Tbilisi. In the southern fronts (i.e., West Iran), Ottomans captured Tabriz, Urmia, Kermanshah and Hamedan. But after Tahmasp 2nd of Safavid Empire began controlling Iran, Ottoman advance was checked. Both sides were tired enough to end the war. Ahmad Pasha (Ottoman side) and Mohammad Reza Gholi (Persian side) signed the treaty.
The terms of the treaty were:
Ottoman Empire kept its gains in Caucasus,
Ottoman gains in West Iran were conceded to Persia, and
Aras River became the new border line in South Caucasus.
The treaty proved to be an armistice rather than a permanent treaty. Because, neither Ottoman sultan Mahmoud I approved the loss of Tabriz, nor Nader Shah, then the commander in chief of the Persian army, accepted Iranian losses in Caucasus. During Nader Shah’s reign, Afshar Dynasty was able to regain its losses.

KEY TERMS:Afghanistan , Afshar , Aras , Aras River , Azerbaijan , Caucasus , Dynasty , Erivan , Ganjeh , Gholi , Hamedan , Hotaki , Iran , Iranian , Kerman , Kermanshah , Nader Shah , Ottoman , Ottoman Empire , Persia , Persian , Reza Gholi , Russia , Russian , Safavi , Safavid , Sarab , Shah , Tabriz , Tahmasp , Tbilisi , Urmia , Zuhab

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