By: Mir M.Hosseini
The Battle of Misikhe (between Jan. 13 and March 14, 244 AD.) was fought between the Sassanid Persians and the Romans in Misikhe in ancient Mesopotamia on Babylon borders. The result was a Roman defeat.
The initial war began when the Roman Emperor Gordian III invaded Persia in 243. His troops advanced as far as Misikhe. The location of that city is conjectural. It is often placed roughly 64 km west of Baghdad in Iraq, near the modern city of Fallujah; The Romans were defeated and Gordian died during battle.
Battle is only mentioned on the trilingual inscription king Shapour made at Naghsh Rostam:
When at first we had become established in the empire, Gordian Caesar raised in all of the Roman Empire a force from the Goth and German realms and marched on Babylonia against the Empire of Iran and against us. On the border of Babylonia at Misikhe, a great frontal battle occurred. Gordian Caesar was killed and the Roman force was destroyed. And the Romans made Philip Caesar. Then Philip Caesar came to us for terms, and to ransom their lives, gave us 500,000 Dinars, and became tributary to us. And for this reason we have renamed Misikhe Pirouz Shapour.
Gordian's successor, Philip the Arab was proclaimed emperor of Rome and made peace with Shapour. Next major clash between the two empires took place in 252, when Shapour defeated the Romans and successfully took Syria and parts of Anatolia.