By: Mir M.Hosseini
After taking care of the revolts in Egypt and Babylon, Xerxes turned towards Greece which was interfering in the areas in Persian realm using a hit and run tactic. Xerxes deployed a great army accompanied by a fleet of naval forces to Greece and soon after crushing a resistance in Thermopylae entered Athens without any resistance. He put the temples in Acropolis on fire in revenge to what Greeks did in Sardis. But Xerxes was tricked into sending naval forces to Salamis Island due to wrong intelligence.
The Iranian ships were caught between attacking Greek union forces with little area to maneuver. There's no correct account of casualties but it seems that Iranians lost all their navy comprised of 400-700 ships. Xerxes returned to Asia due to unrest in Babylon leaving 1/3 of his army in Athens leaded by Mardonius who was defeated the following year at Plataea.
The Salamis battle has been a case study showing the importance of naval forces. In the 16th century Philip of Spain underestimated the Queen's forces and was defeated in the sea; thus putting an end to Spain's hegemony.
Salamis was the first battle in which a female named Artemis was commander of 5 Iranian navy units succeeding in saving at least some of the naval forces and thus promoted as admiral by Xerxes. In 1960's the Iranian navy named a vessel after Artemis.
Afterwards the Persian made no more attempts to conquer the Greek mainland. These battles of Salamis and Plataea thus mark a turning point in the course of the Greco-Persian wars as a whole.