By: Mir M.Hosseini
20 years after Iranians were defeated in Chaldoran, Kanuni Sultan Soleyman seized Tabriz again while Shah Tahmasp Safavi was busy at war with Uzbeks and revolting brothers. One of the main reasons behind Iranians defeat was lack of firearms such as cannons and rifles which were widely used by Ottomans. For a long time Iranians refused to use such weapons considered not chivalrous and not manly. Shah Abbas broke the taboo and was the first king to use cannons in battles. Soon after Tabriz fell, Ottomans turned towards Shervan, Soltaniyeh and even Guilan but were faced by local resistance in the form of street fight and militia warfare. Later that year Sultan Soleyman could temporarily seize Baghdad but the victory did not last long and he was forced to withdraw. Baghdad's importance was because of the fact that Sultan Soleyman was calling himself the Caliph of Muslims.
Sultan Soleyman was the son of Sultan Selim. Born in 1494, he took his father's place in 1520 and only one year later captured Belgrade. He died in 1566.