By: Mir M.Hosseini
Bahrain had been Iran's 14th province until the Europeans penetrated the Persian Gulf and it was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521. Bahrain changed hands several times but still was part of Iran although Iranians were never able to create a powerful navy. Dr. Mosaddegh was keen to return Bahrain under control when in May, 2, 1952 the British issued a formal ultimatum threatening Iran with war if Iranians did not step back.
Bahrain islands in the Persian Gulf were always a part of the Persian Empire until the Arab invasion in 7th century AD. It was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521, until Shah Abbas drove them out in 1602. Since the beginning of British colonization, in 1783 a tribal group known as the Caliph were installed to power and forced through a series of imposed treaties to stay a British protectorate (1820-1971).
On June, 2, 1952, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in an official note, warned the British government against signing any agreements with Bahrain. Britain had entered an alliance with Iran against the Portuguese during the reign of Shah Abbas 2. and had acknowledged Iran's sovereignty over the Persian Gulf and Bahrain.
Nevertheless, with lots of help from CIA, UK succeeded in overthrowing the Mosaddegh government in 1953 and installed the puppet Shah in Iran who did not oppose Bahrain’s separation from the motherland in 1971.