By: Mir M.Hosseini
Shah Abbas Safavi modernized the Iranian army and after moving the capital to Isfahan it was time to deal with the notorious enemy, the Ottomans. On Sep, 28, 1603 Tabriz fell shortly because of local uprisings and the Ottoman army had to retreat. Then there came another great victory in Urmia when the Ottoman army had to retreat.
The war with Ottomans lasted for 9 years and ended with a new agreement in Istanbul on Nov, 20, 1612. But this treaty did not last long either. 2.5 years later, on May, 22, 1615 the Ottomans came under another attack and were defeated in Pol Shekasteh by the Iranian army on Sep, 10, 1618. The Ardebil peace agreement that was made on Sep, 26, 1618 ended 3 years of Ottoman-Safavi war. However, Iranians were keen to gain back their lost territory and after 5 years in 1624 a new war began that was not comparable to any war before that. This way, most of the land seized by Ottomans until 1613 was taken back marking a new glorious era for Iranians. Still Caucasia had to be shared between the two great empires.