By: Mir M.Hosseini
After the French counselor Bizot was dismissed, American Morgan Shuster arrived in Tehran on May, 12, 1911. Iran had entered the 20th century officially bankrupt and all attempts to modernize the country had failed. Shuster succeeded in reorganizing the tax office in less than eight months against the wills of Russian and British colonists who were great obstacles against progress and with a strong network of agents and spies. After obtaining a letter of authentication from Majlis on June, 13, on July, 6th, Shuster offered an experienced Persian speaking British officer to supervise a team of gendarmes for collecting taxes. On July, 24, the British officer resigned from the Imperial forces and was employed by Iranian government. Russians opposed this situation as a threat to their interests in northern Iran and issued an ultimatum on Aug, 19 to the Iranians. Americans who had gained independence from the British had a revolutionary way of thinking and followed an aggressive foreign policy. Then Shuster employed 4 American, and 35 Iranian officers together with 11,000 units to form the core of Iran's first gendarmerie.
The Russian influence was synchronized with the British and the parliament was shelled by colonel Liakhoff of Imperial Russia and Shuster was forced to resign on Dec, 27. The gendarmerie was dismissed after 6 months of its short life. After he returned home, Shuster wrote a book named "Strangling of Persia" detailing the way meddling of great powers deprived Iranians from having an appropriate state.