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Russians Withdraw From Iranian Territories

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January, 21, 1732 A.D.:
Russians Withdraw From Iranian Territories

By: Mir M.Hosseini

According to an official note submitted to Iranian authorities in Rasht, the Russians nullified their 1724 agreement with Ottomans in which Iran was divided between the two states as a result of a turmoil at the end of the Safavi dynasty. An ambassador from the Russian court arrived in Mashhad on May, 26th who declared that, in compliance with Nader's request, the Empress was resigning the province of Guilan, and other conquests of Peter I on the coasts of the Caspian sea. At the beginning of July, intelligence was brought, that the Russians were departing peaceably from the frontiers of Iran.
On Feb, 1, 1732, a treaty of peace, amity and commerce was signed in Rasht according to which Guilan, Mazandaran, and Astara were to be restored to Persia. Regular commercial, diplomatic and consular relations were to be established between the two empires. This was somehow to prevent Tahmasp from giving in to the Ottomans, although Russians were pessimistic about him; They doubted his success because of his weakness and his mad actions resulting from drunkenness. Tahmasp was described as debauched, having bad commanders, and due to his incapability, he lost the battle of Erivan to Ottomans in spite of the fact that he had numerical superiority.
Events moved swiftly and soon after, Shah Tahmasp was dethroned because of his incompetence. The brilliant warrior, Nader assumed regency and conduct of foreign affairs. Nader was a strong ruler that drove back Ottomans in very short time and gave Russians an ultimatum. He was known as a determined ruler that could not be stopped easily by any army. Despite withdrawal from most of occupied territories, Russians kept some garrisons in Baku. Two years later, right after Nader Shah advanced towards Daghestan, Russians left the area in such a hurry that they had to leave their heavy artillery.
A Russian prince was sent to Iran in order to prevent Iran from making peace with the Ottoman Empire. Before reaching Isfahan in May, 1734, he learned that a peace treaty had been concluded. Nevertheless, he promised help from Russians against Ottomans.
Nader's response was loud and clear; If circumstances compelled him to fight the Turks, he would prevail without help from outside. A real sovereign state does not depend on foreign aid.

KEY TERMS:Astara , Baku , Caspian , Daghestan , Erivan , Guilan , Iran , Iranian , Isfahan , Mashhad , Mazandaran , Nader Shah , Ottoman , Ottoman Empire , Persia , Rasht , Russia , Russian , Safavi , Shah , Shah Tahmasp , Tahmasp , Tur , Turk

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