By: Mir M.Hosseini
Agha Mohammad Khan of Qajar dynasty announces Tehran as Iran's new capital. The city of Sari, in Mazandaran province used to be the Qajar capital but because of defensive considerations the decision to move the capital was taken. Tehran soon expanded and became Iran's most populated city. The following is a brief history of Tehran:
Tehran, today's capital of Iran, has a legendary history that goes back to Sheath (Adam's son) and 3000 years old tombs in Gheytariyeh testifies a great advanced civilization in this area. Tehran used to be an agricultural area north of the city of Rhagae. After Mongolian army destroyed Rhagae, residents moved to other areas such as Tehran. It's believed that the people of Tehran used to live under ground for a long time. The earliest documents referring to the name "Tehran" date back to 10th Century.
During the reign of Shah Tahmasp Safavi (r. 1524-1576) , city walls were built around Tehran with many watch towers. 40 on south, 31 on north, 22 on west, and 21 on the east side totaling 114 as the numbers of sections in Quran.
In 1589 when Shah Abbas was on his way to war with Uzbek army fell sick in Tehran and Mashhad was captured by the Uzbeks. Because of his dislike due to bad memories Tehran gets no more attention.
Nader shah Afshar ordered establishing a council of Shiite and Sunni leaders in Tehran in order to discuss & solve differences for unification of Muslims.
Shah mosque, Azizollah mosque, Marvi school, Qajar palace, Negarestan Garden and Lalezar are historical monuments of Fathali Shah era. City walls were extended 7.5 more kilometers and 6 gates were built.
During the reign of Mohammad Shah districts of Abbasabad and Mohammadiyeh were added and Karaj river was extended to Tehran. Today's Keshavarz Blvd.
Dar-ul-fonoon school, Amir Bazaar and Kaffash (shoemaker) Bazaar were built during Amir Kabir's time Meanwhile Tehran's population was reported around 150,000.
In 1858, Dar-ul-fonoon prepared the first city map of Tehran in 1/1000 scale.
In 1867, city walls were extended to an octagon shape and city gates (darvazeh) became limited to 12. Namely; Shemiran, Dowlat, Yusufabad, Doshan Tappeh, Dolapdareh, Khorasan, Bagheshah, Qazvin, Gomrok, Abdolazim, Ghar and Khaniabad. The area within new city walls became 7.5 Square Miles.
During 20 years following 1882 moats and gates were gradually destroyed and the city started expanding trigonometrically. Tehran University, Railway Station, National Police, Melli Bank, Radio Station and some other buildings such as hospitals and ministries were built.
Until 1914 (End of World War II) a situation of chaos became prominent, followed by an era of a fast paste of growth. In 1976 the population was reported: 4,5 million.
Today Tehran is a Metropolitan of around 12 million residents.