By: Mir M.Hosseini
After 13 years of exile in Iraq, Ayatollah Khomeini's house in Najaf was besieged by the Iraqi police and he was deported from Iraq on Sep, 4, 1978. Despite the fact that Khomeini had obtained a visa to Kuwait, he was denied entrance at the airport due to the fear from Mohammad Reza Shah. He then took off for France where he stayed for four months in a small village called Neauphle le Chateau. Iranian unrest increased until the shah fled to Egypt in January, 1979; Khomeini returned to Iran two weeks later and was eventually named Iran's political and religious leader. He established a system in which the clergy dominated the government, and his foreign policies were agonistic. During the first year of his leadership, Militant students seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran escalating tensions with the U.S. by creating a hostage crisis. Despite given promises of democracy, elimination of mainly nationalist forces from politics began. As early as August 20, 1979, 22 opposition newspapers were ordered closed. Crackdown on women to enforce Islamic dress code was another surprise fruit of the revolution which has been source of tensions among people and the armed forces.
Then a devastating war with Iraq began that continued for eight years. Shortly after the end of the war in 1988, Khomeini ordered execution of political prisoners who were given terms to fulfill. This happened just before he issued a fatwa calling for Salman Rushdie, a British writer's death which made him the media title again for some time until his death in June, 1989. One of the most disputed political heritages of Ayatollah Khomeini has been the Velayat Faghih or the government of the jurist in which the Supreme Shiite clergy assumes power or representation from the last hidden Shiite Imam to rule over people just like a monarch. This political and religious body or the leader, together with many other institutions that form a shadow state were part of a cynical strategy to guarantee the legitimacy of the regime by force rather than people's votes, a model that supposedly was formed in France.