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Majlis Second Term Begins

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November, 15, 1909 A.D.:
Majlis Second Term Begins

By: Mir M.Hosseini

Parliamentary elections were held for the second time in Persia in 1909. The Social Democratic Party won 48% of the seats, whilst the Democratic Party won 24%. The new Parliament convened on 19 November.
Azadolmolk, as regent to 13 year old Ahmad Shah formed a committee of 20 members in which following key figures: Farmanfarma as Minister of Justice, Mostofiolmamalek as Minister of Finance, Mohammad Valikhan Sepahdar as Minister of War, Sardar Asad as Minister of Interior Affairs, Naserolmolk Gharagozlu as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Sardar Mansour as Minister of Post and Telegraph. This new cabinet's main duty was to run the parliament elections.
The second Majlis convened after a period of 17 months with many difficulties, a two-stage election was carried out. Interventions by foreign forces and inexperience were major obstacles at the time. But Majlis resisted as much as possible and people moved the obstacles one by one.
From the beginning, representatives focused on unwanted presence of Russian forces in Iran. Despite all agreements, Russians were keeping garrisons in Qazvin and northern provinces. Russia was given several notes to pull out troops. But Russia's response was negative and they preferred to maintain an atmosphere of chaos and disorder to achieve their own agenda.
Although parliament members were those who once fought against the same dictatorship, political divisions soon began. Democrats with 28 members, and conservatives with 36 members were the two major wings. Finally, the 2nd Majlis was dissolved under foreign pressure on Dec, 24, 1911. The representatives were either forced to flee or sent into exile.
However important bills, including the new election law were passed during the second term.

KEY TERMS:Ahmad Shah , Azad , Azadolmolk , Beg , Farman , Farmanfarma , Iran , Majlis , Minister of Finance , Minister of Foreign Affairs , Minister of Interior Affairs , Minister of Justice , Minister of Post and Telegraph , Minister of War , Mohammad Valikhan Sepahdar , Mostofi , Mostofiolmamalek , Naserolmolk Gharagozlu , Parliament , Persia , Post , Qazvin , Russia , Russian , Sardar Asad , Sardar Mansour , Second , Sepah , Shah , Social Democratic Party

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