The Iranian History Article :

Etemadoddoleh Arrested

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April, 15, 1801 A.D.:
Etemadoddoleh Arrested

By: Mir M.Hosseini


Haji Ebrahim Kalantar or Etemadoddoleh was a key figure in the bloody transition of power from Zand Dynasty to Qajar Dynasty. From a Jewish descent, he was one of the noblemen of Shiraz. In August, 1791, when Lotfali Khan appointed him as governor of Shiraz and marched towards Isfahan, Haji Ebrahim betrayed him and arrested most of the Zand family, confiscated their properties and forced them to leave Shiraz. Meanwhile, his brother Abdolrahim Khan instigated a revolt inside Lotfali Khan's army. After receiving the bad news from Shiraz, young Lotfali Khan who did not have enough experience could not maintain his army which was dispersed and he had to return to Shiraz. The city was well fortified and he could not enter his capital. This marked the beginning of the end of the Zand Dynasty.
Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar Dynasty re-installed Haji Ebrahim as Shiraz governor. After Agha Mohammad Khan's death in 1797, he helped install Fathali Shah as the king who in turn made him the Grand Vezir and honored him with the title Etemadoddoleh.
His sphere of power was increasing in Fars day by day and he was gradually seen as a threat. He was therefore arrested by an order from Fathali Shah who was probably tipped about a conspiracy and sent him to Taleghan on April, 15, 1801. After a month in prison, he was blinded and his tongue was cut out, a punishment that was usual during Qajar era to create fear. After his death, his family and children shared the same destiny and his wealth and properties were confiscated.
Etemadoddoleh's betrayal of the Zand family, led to creation of the Qajar Dynasty, one of the most corrupt and brutal kingdoms Iran has ever seen. Iran lost %60 of its territories during Qajar era while the royal court was entertaining in Harems.



KEY TERMS:Agha Mohammad Khan , Dynasty , Etemadoddoleh , Fars , Fathali Shah , Haji , Harem , Iran , Isfahan , Jew , Jewish , Khan , Lotfali , Lotfali Khan , Qajar , Shah , Shiraz , Taleghan , Vezir , Zand , Zand Dynasty


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