The Iranian History Era :

Safavid Dynasty (1502 - 1736) AD

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March, 11, 1502 A.D.:
Shah Ismail Becomes King

After 12 years of fighting with over 50 tribal, and regional leaders, the coronation ceremony of Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty took place in Tabriz. By declaring Shiite, the official faith he created a new center of power among Muslims. His other source of power came from being Tur... Read Full Article:


June, 21, 1503 A.D.:
Shah Ismail Defeats Ak Koyunlu Leader

While trying to beseige Darband in 1488, Sheikh Heydar (Shah Ismail's father), was killed by allied forces of the Shervanshah king Farrokh Yasar, and the Ak Koyunlu leader Soltan Yaghub.Soltan Yaghub imprisoned Ismail, his mother and two of his brothers. Soltan Yaghub died on Jan, 2, 1490 and Ismail... Read Full Article:


September, 3, 1508 A.D.:
Shah Ismail Appoints Governor Of Khuzestan

Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty appointed Khadem Beyk as the governor of the Khuzestan province. The southern part of Mesopotamia, today's Iraq including Basra were included in the domain of Khadem Beyk without any change to Iran's map of provinces. Ismail's reign was marked by enorm... Read Full Article:


December, 2, 1510 A.D.:
The Battle Of Marv

The Battle of Marv took place on Dec, 2, 1510 and ended with a decisive victory for the Safavid Dynasty over the Uzbek invasion of Khorasan. As a result, Persia regained control of the Greater Khorasan: north-eastern and east of present Iran, southern parts of present day Turkmenistan, and western a... Read Full Article:


November, 24, 1512 A.D.:
Uzbeks Defeat Safavid-Mughal Alliance

After the defeat of Babur at the Battle of Kul Malek he applied for assistance to Biram Khan Karamanloo who commanded for the Safavid Persian Shah Ismail I at Balkh and who sent a detachment to support him, on the arrival of which the Uzbeks withdrew from the country of Hisar. But Babur after the si... Read Full Article:


August, 23, 1514 A.D.:
Shah Ismail Loses The Chaldoran War

Sultan Salim of the Ottomans mobilized an army to attack the new Iranian government headed by Shah Ismail on April, 23, 1514. Sultan Salim had seized power in battles against his brother in 1512. Iran's announcement of Shiite faith as the official religion had raised red flags among Ottomans who cal... Read Full Article:


May, 4, 1515 A.D.:
Portuguese Occupy Hormoz Island

Eight years after the first invasion of the Persian Gulf by admiral Albuquerque, the Portuguese navy occupies the Hormoz island with more troops. This marks the start of western invasion of the Middle East. In a decree issued by Pope Alexander VI in 1493, eastern islands were granted to the Portugue... Read Full Article:


May, 23, 1524 A.D.:
Shah Ismail Safavi Dies

Shah Ismail, the founder of the great Safavi dynasty died after 23 years of reign. He reunited Iran under one central government and extended the borders almost to the same extent of the Sassanid empire. He announced 12 imam Shiite faith as Iran's official religion. He was a great warrior but did no... Read Full Article:


February, 18, 1529 A.D.:
Habsburg-Persian Alliance Against Ottomans

(Wikipedia) - During the reign of the Iranian Shah Ismail, exchanges occurred between him and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor), and Ludwig II of Hungary in view of combining against the Turks. Charles, then king of Spain as Charles I, sent an envoy to propose an alliance to the Shah of Iran between 15... Read Full Article:


July, 12, 1534 A.D.:
Tabriz Captured By Ottomans

20 years after Iranians were defeated in Chaldoran, Kanuni Sultan Soleyman seized Tabriz again while Shah Tahmasp Safavi was busy at war with Uzbeks and revolting brothers. One of the main reasons behind Iranians defeat was lack of firearms such as cannons and rifles which were widely used by Ottoma... Read Full Article:


June, 28, 1540 A.D.:
Indian King Seeks Assylum In Iran

Homayoon Shah, the Mughal emperor of India who was defeated in a battle against an Afghan warlord fled into the Iranian borders and sought asylum at the court of Safavi dynasty. India had entered a time of chaos and civil wars. Right after Homayoon Shah entered Qazvin, Shah Tahmasp of Safavi dynasty... Read Full Article:


July, 27, 1548 A.D.:
4th Occupation Of Tabriz By Ottomans

The Safavi army was trying to regain its power after Iraq was lost to Ottomans when Sultan Soleyman started his second Iran campaign. His first campaign started with leaving Istanbul on June,11, 1534 and ended with occupation of Baghdad and Hamedan. Firearms superiority and great war experiences gav... Read Full Article:


August, 15, 1551 A.D.:
Vardzia Evacuated

The cave city of Vardzia in southern Georgia was founded by Queen Tamar in 1185. The city was first built to also serve as a protection against Seljuks and Mongols. Consisting of over six thousand apartments in a thirteen story complex, houses were built on top of each other resembling the city of M... Read Full Article:


July, 8, 1552 A.D.:
Ottomans Attack Hormoz Island

The expansionist Ottoman empire in a power struggle with the Europeans attacked the Portuguese units in the Hormoz Island in the Persian Gulf. Iran's army's lack of firearms caused visible inferiority in battles 40 years after the Chaldoran war which was lost for the same reason. Iran's lack of nava... Read Full Article:


March, 29, 1555 A.D.:
Peace Treaty Signed With Ottoman Empire

After long years of wars that devastated both countries, the Ottoman and the Safavi Empires signed a peace treaty on May, 29, 1555 that brought peace to Iran for a while. The Peace treaty between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Am... Read Full Article:


January, 27, 1571 A.D.:
Prince Abbas Is Born

Prince Abbas Mirza, later to become Shah Abbas of Safavian Dynasty was born on Jan, 27, 1571 and became king in October 1587 after a coup against his inept father: Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh. He managed to defeat strong enemies such as the Uzbek tribes and the Ottoman EmpireShah Abbas was born in H... Read Full Article:


June, 20, 1576 A.D.:
Ibrahim Mirza Killed

The royal palace in Qazvin became scene of heinous conspiracies of a Safavi princess named Parikhan. She was the daughter of Shah Tahmasp and allegedly killed her own father by poisoning. Then her other brother Ismail Mirza became king. The other brother Heydar Mirza was decapitated.But their uncle ... Read Full Article:


September, 1, 1576 A.D.:
Shah Ismail 2.Ascends The Throne

Shah Ismail 2 was the fourth son of Shah Tahmasp of the Safavid Dynasty. Born in 1537, He was the governor of Shirvan in 15647. In 1556 he was the governor of Khorasan when he was arrested for plotting against his father and spent the next 20 years in the prison at the Castle of Qahqaha.After the de... Read Full Article:


November, 24, 1577 A.D.:
Shah Ismail 2. Of Safavid Dynasty Dies

Shah Ismail 2 from Safavid dynasty suddenly died. He was known as a bloodthirsty ruler whose reign lasted for only 15 months. He spend most of this time killing or blinding his father’s other sons and grandsons. He was the successor of Shah Tahmasp who had ascended the throne after spending 20 yea... Read Full Article:


April, 5, 1578 A.D.:
Ottomans Invade Iranian Territory

After 23 years of peace, the Ottoman army entered Kafkas area and in multiple battles captured around 590,000 km.sq of the Iranian territory. Tbilisi fell on Aug, 24 and Shirvan was conquered on Sep, 9. The war continued until Daghestan was seized on Aug, 15, 1583 by the invading army. The chain of ... Read Full Article:


August, 9, 1578 A.D.:
Ottomans Capture Caucasia

The peace between the Ottoman Empire and Persian Empire after the treaty of Amasya continued from 1555 to 1578. When Sultan Murat III of the Ottoman Empire ascended to throne in 1574, As a gesture of goodwill, Shah Tahmasp 1 of Persia sent presents to Murat III. But before the Persian delegation lef... Read Full Article:


October, 1, 1587 A.D.:
Abbas 1st Proclaims Shah Of Persia

Like all great rulers, Shah Abbas was born during troubled times. When in 1578, his father Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh became Shah of Iran, Queen Mahdolia soon came to dominate the government, but she had little time for Abbas, preferring to promote the interests of his elder brother Hamzeh. The que... Read Full Article:


July, 23, 1589 A.D.:
Shah Abbas Eliminates Guardian

Morshed Gholi Khan was a tribal leader of the powerful Estejanloo tribe. He was the guardian of Prince Abbas Mirza who would later become Shah Abbas the Great. Morshed Gholi Khan helped Abbas Mirza take Khorasan governorship by eliminating Ali Gholi Khan Shamloo. Morshed took the title Vakilossaltan... Read Full Article:


May, 21, 1590 A.D.:
Peace Treaty of Istanbul

The Treaty of Istanbul of 1590 or Treaty of Constantinople also known as Treaty of Farhad Pasha was a treaty between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia after a long war between 1577 and 1589. (Signed on the 21. of May 1590)The war began in Southern Caucasus. At the Battle of childir, the Ottoman army... Read Full Article:


June, 19, 1598 A.D.:
Shah Abbas Meets Shirley Brothers

English fortune hunters, the Shirley brothers met with Shah Abbas of Safavi dynasty in Qazvin, Iran's capital. Shah Abbas was seeking to modernize the army and decided to use the modern know-how. After signing a peace treaty with the Ottomans in 1589, he went to war with Uzbeks who had occupied Khor... Read Full Article:


November, 12, 1598 A.D.:
Isfahan Becomes Iran's Capital

Safavid Shah Abbas (1588-1629) chose Isfahan as the new capital. His mother had been slaughtered in Qazvin, and he used this fact as a pretext to move the capital. However, the fact that the Kizilbash had a strong support in Qazvin, and that Isfahan was a more suitable place in terms of defense and ... Read Full Article:


July, 19, 1599 A.D.:
Shah Abbas Liberated Mashhad

In 1592 Shah Abbas took off for his first campaign with his reformed army against the Uzbek tribes who had seized Khorasan and were ravaging the province. Without a serious engagement, Shah Abbas returned from Neishabour due to unprecedented cold.In 1595 Shah Abbas started his second Khorasan campai... Read Full Article:


September, 2, 1602 A.D.:
Shah Abbas Expands His Harem

On Sep, 2, 1602 Shah Abbas married a 13 years old girl, daughter of Ahmad Khan Gilani. The girl was initially engaged at childhood with Prince Safi Mirza, according to traditions. This marriage took place less than two months after a beautiful Georgian princess entered Shah's Harem. It's been narrat... Read Full Article:


August, 15, 1603 A.D.:
Shah Abbas Starts Azerbaijan Campaign

After Iranians secured Greater Khorasan, the Ottomans were on alert because they feared a possible attack from Iran to free occupied Greater Azerbaijan. Spies reported that Ali Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Azerbaijan took off on a mission to suppress uprisings in Salmas on May, 1603. Shah Abbas th... Read Full Article:


September, 28, 1603 A.D.:
Tabriz Taken Back From Ottomans

Shah Abbas Safavi modernized the Iranian army and after moving the capital to Isfahan it was time to deal with the notorious enemy, the Ottomans. On Sep, 28, 1603 Tabriz fell shortly because of local uprisings and the Ottoman army had to retreat. Then there came another great victory in Urmia when t... Read Full Article:


May, 28, 1604 A.D.:
Erivan Liberated

After liberation of Tabriz in 1603, Shah Abbas marched north to liberate rest of Greater Azarbaijan which was under Ottoman occupation since his grandfather Shah Ismail's defeat at the Battle of Chaldoran. The Ottoman chief Sharif Pasha evacuated the Nakhjevan Castle and gathered all of his forces, ... Read Full Article:


July, 5, 1606 A.D.:
Ganjeh Taken Back From Ottomans

The epic defeat of Ottoman army of 100,000 men headed by Sinan Pasha in 1605 provided Shah Abbas the morals to complete his conquest of Greater Azarbaijan. He marched towards north Azarbaijan in winter of 1604 taking his time for the forces of Allahverdi Khan to return from Fars and join his camp in... Read Full Article:


October, 9, 1606 A.D.:
An Ottoman Messenger To Persia

After capturing the Ganjeh Castle, the Tbilisi Castle surrendered and Shah Abbas marched from Georgia towards Erivan and Nakhjevan to take the Shirvan Castle back from the Ottomans.At this time, a woman named Golchehreh Khanoom visited the Safavid court. She was the wife of Simon the governor of Geo... Read Full Article:


July, 26, 1607 A.D.:
Darband, Baku, Shamakhi Recovered

While peace negotiations between Iranians and Ottomans were in progress Shah Abbas decided to gain more bargaining chips and show Sultan Ahmet that he seriously wanted the Persian territory back, therefore he continued his Greater Azarbaijan campaign and took Shamakhi, the capital of Shirvan under s... Read Full Article:


October, 20, 1612 A.D.:
Ottomans Offer Peace

Peace came with Ottoman Empire Nov, 20, 1612 after Iranians took back much of the territory lost in 1590 according to the peace treaty of Istanbul. Shah Abbas I of Persia had to concede vast areas in Northwest Iran and Caucasus to the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Istanbul in 1590. After solving p... Read Full Article:


April, 16, 1613 A.D.:
The Isfahan Treaty With Ottomans

After 3 consequent years of several battles with Ottomans in which Iranians were victorious, the Ottoman envoy reaches Isfahan to sign a peace treaty according to which the Ottoman Empire accepted waiver of all rights and claims regarding Kafkas region. Erivan, Ghares and Van were battlegrounds in... Read Full Article:


October, 17, 1613 A.D.:
Safavid Venture In Georgia

Shah Abbas marched from Isfahan towards Ardebil on Oct, 17, 1613. His next stop was Karabagh in a campaign to take control of the Iranian side of Georgia, especially Kartli, Kakheti and Meskheti where revolts had broken out. It seemed crucial for Shah Abbas to take control of the Iranian share of Ge... Read Full Article:


May, 27, 1614 A.D.:
Spain Offer For Bahrain Rejected

Shah Abbas of Safavi dynasty received a note from a messenger sent by Philippe, the king of Spain which asked Iran to give up Bahrain. At the same meeting Shah Abbas said that Bahrain was part of Iran according to historical documents and it can not be separated from Iran except by war. He added tha... Read Full Article:


November, 22, 1617 A.D.:
War Inherited From Sultan Ahmet

Sultan Ahmet Khan of the Ottoman Empire died on Nov, 22, 1617 shortly after appointing Khalil Pasha as the Grand Vezir of the Ottoman court who had gathered a massive army in Diyarbakir for a general assault on Iran.The new Sultan Mustafa Khan considered peace with Iran and freed the Iranian envoy G... Read Full Article:


September, 10, 1618 A.D.:
Battle Of Pol Shekasteh

A massive Ottoman army invaded Iran in late 1617 AD without facing a great challenge. Grand Vezir Khalil Pasha considered retreat of Qaraqchay Khan as a sign of his imminent victory yet he proceeded with caution. Shah Abbas had ordered his army to let the invaders enter deep inside the Iranian soil ... Read Full Article:


September, 26, 1618 A.D.:
Sarab Peace Treaty With Ottomans

Treaty of Sarab was a treaty between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia after the war of 1615 - 1618 signed on the Sep, 26, 1618.By the treaty of Isfahan in 1613, the Ottoman Empire had agreed to turn back Caucasus and Northwest Iran to Safavid Persia. Iranians on the other hand refused to pay an ann... Read Full Article:


April, 22, 1622 A.D.:
Hormoz Island Liberated

A few years after 1498 when Vasco da Gama travelled from Portugal to India, Alfonso Albuquerque visited the Hormoz Island in 1507 and offered protection to the local ruler. Emir of Hormoz was loyal to the Iranian government and rejected the offer. In 1515, Albuquerque returned with 27 battleships an... Read Full Article:


January, 22, 1623 A.D.:
Pope Offers Support Against Ottomans

The Ottoman Empire at the peak of its power arrived at the gates of Vienna and European countries fell one by one. Safavid Iran was also in conflict with the Ottomans over the disputed Mesopotamia now called Iraq. On Jan, 22, 1623, Shah Abbas received a formal letter from Pope Paul V in which he had... Read Full Article:


January, 25, 1623 A.D.:
Iranians Conquer Baghdad

Following the decisive Iranian victory at the Battle of Pol Shekasteh in 1618, the Ottomans did not have much choice but to sign the Sarab Peace Treaty in less favorable terms. In 1622, Sultan Osman Khan's failure to mobilize the Yenicheri army against Iran ended with a coup that toppled him. His un... Read Full Article:


January, 19, 1629 A.D.:
Shah Abbas Dies

Shah Abbas of Safavi dynasty died in Behshahr at the age of 58. He was given the title "The Great" for modernizing Iranian army and pushing back great enemies like Uzbeks and Ottomans extending the national borders from Tigris to Indus. Yet, there's another side of the coin; he was very brutal. Even... Read Full Article:


January, 28, 1629 A.D.:
Shah Safi Ascends The Throne

Shah Abbas 1st, the 5th sovereign of the Safavian Dynasty died in Behshahr at the age of 58 on Jan, 19, 1629. His grandson, Sam Mirza was crowned at the age of eighteen taking the title Shah Safi on January, 28 1629.Shah Safi was Shahanshah of Iran from 1629 to 1642. He was the sixth ruler of the Sa... Read Full Article:


September, 20, 1638 A.D.:
Ottomans Lay Siege To Baghdad

Sultan Murat 4. completed Baghdad siege and asked the Iranian commander in charge to surrender. The Iranians wowed not to give Baghdad up without a fight till the last person. Thus started a three month long resistance against the Ottomans who wanted to take all of the Arab world under control. Mean... Read Full Article:


December, 25, 1638 A.D.:
Ottomans Capture Baghdad

Baghdad, once the capital of Arab Abbasi Caliphate, was one of the most important cities of the Muslim World. In the second half of the Medieval age, Turkic rulers (Seljuks, Kara Koyunlu, Ak Koyunlu ) as well as others always tried to control this prestigious city. In 1534, Ottoman Sultan Suleyman 1... Read Full Article:


May, 17, 1639 A.D.:
Treaty of Ghasreshirin

The Treaty of Ghasreshirin was an accord signed between Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire on May 17, 1639. The accord ended the war that had begun in 1623 and was the last conflict in almost 150 years of intermittent wars between the two states over territorial disputes. The treaty divided terri... Read Full Article:


May, 15, 1642 A.D.:
Shah Abbas 2. Ascends The Throne

On May, 12 1642 Shah Safi died and he was succeeded by his ten year old son Prince Mohammad Mirza who took the title Shah Abbas 2nd on his coronation day on May, 15, 1942, as the 7th sovereign of the Safavian Dynasty. Since the new Shah was still a minor, Safavid Grand Vezir Saru Taghi Khan continue... Read Full Article:


October, 11, 1645 A.D.:
Vezir Saru Taghi Assassinated

Vezir Saru Taghi served as regent to Shah Abbas 2. since his accession to the Safavian throne on May, 15, 1642. Shah was a ten year old minor at the time but Saru Taghi was able to run state affairs of the Safavid Empire with great executive policy that also satisfied Shah's mother. Influential wome... Read Full Article:


January, 3, 1649 A.D.:
Mughals Driven Out Of Ghandahar

Cities in Ariana were sometimes easy targets for invaders. There were sporadic Attacks by tribal leaders in the neighboring area.Ali Mardan Khan was the Safavid governor of Kandahar. Because he was not truthful in reporting revenues, he was summoned by Shah Tahmasp to appear at the court, but avoid... Read Full Article:


December, 18, 1650 A.D.:
Mughals Defeated In Ghandahar Again

One year after the defeat of Indian forces in Kandahar, Shah Jahan sends another army to capture the city. This army was defeated by the garrison stationed in Kandahar and by special strike forces in the cities nearby. This provision had been made by Shah Abbas 2 who had defeated the Indians just a ... Read Full Article:


August, 6, 1694 A.D.:
Sultan Hossein Ascends The Throne

On his dead bed, Shah Soleyman asked the royal Safavi court to choose one of his two sons Hossein or Abbas as his successor. Hossein who had a reputation for being easy-going and had little interest in political affairs was a more attractive choice for the corrupt administration, thus he ascended th... Read Full Article:


August, 14, 1694 A.D.:
Hossein Becomes King

Sultan Hossein, the eldest son of the deceased king Shah Soleyman was announced the new Safavid king. In his last will, Shah Soleyman who ruled the country for more than 28 years had asked Morteza, the younger son to become king. This was mainly due to the soft temper of Hossein, and the fact that h... Read Full Article:


August, 6, 1698 A.D.:
Nader Shah's Birthday

Nader Shah the great Iranian commander was born on Aug, 6, 1698 in Dastgerd of Khorasan province. He soon discovered a peculiar genius for military exercises: even at the early age of fifteen. It was in the 36 year of his age, that he formed the design of delivering his country from the tyrants by c... Read Full Article:


November, 19, 1699 A.D.:
The Return Of Mir Weis Khan To Ghandahar

Mir Weis Khan, the leader of one of the Ghilzai clans returned home after visiting the Persian court in Isfahan. The Sunni Pashtun tribes were under constant pressure by the Safavids to convert to Shiite. Mir Weis incited a rebellion against Safavid dynasty to be suppressed by Gurgin Khan; a Georgi... Read Full Article:


January, 24, 1704 A.D.:
Louis XIV Offers French Iranian Treaty

A special envoy from French king Louis XIV enters Isfahan on Jan, 24, 1704, conveying a message to Sultan Hossein Safavi that offered a mutual treaty between the two countries. The treaty was signed by Sultan Hossein. It offered French protection for Iranian citizens and their interests in Europe an... Read Full Article:


February, 7, 1715 A.D.:
Persian Ambassador In Paris

The first Persian embassy to Europe (1599-1602) was dispatched by Shah Abbas 1st in 1599. The mission was to obtain an alliance against the Ottoman Empire. These Persian efforts at rapprochement with Europe followed the Persian defeat against the Ottoman Empire in the Ottoman - Safavid War 1578-1590... Read Full Article:


April, 26, 1721 A.D.:
1721 Tabriz earthquake

(Scientific Information Database) - Tabriz is situated in an active tectonic region of Azerbaijan, a sub province of Central Iran seismic province and surrounded by several active and hazardous faults that most of them especially NTF has experienced several catastrophic historical earthquakes. Seism... Read Full Article:


August, 18, 1721 A.D.:
Massacre Of Shiites In Shamakhi

A rebel chieftain who was held captive in the citadel of Darband was released after the Afghan attack, hoping that the people of Daghestan would come to the help of the Shah. But things went awfully wrong and the released chieftain and his allies in Daghestan took Shamakhi by storm and massacred tho... Read Full Article:


March, 8, 1722 A.D.:
Royal Army Defeated By Ghilzai Chieftains

The uprising of Mahmoud Ghandahari which was provoked by India was the prelude to the downfall of the Safavid dynasty. While Sultan Hossein was entertaining in his harem, tribal Afghan forces could easily proceed towards west to the heart of the Persian empire with no resistance. The king marched ag... Read Full Article:


August, 23, 1722 A.D.:
Darband Captured By Russians

The declining Safavi dynasty gave Russians the opportunity to invade Persian territory. A quest that challenged Persian hegemony in the region and later ended with Iranians losing sovereignty. Taking advantage of civil disorder in Iran, Peter the great, deployed 22,000 men and his newly built Caspia... Read Full Article:


October, 12, 1722 A.D.:
Epic Fall Of Safavid Capital Isfahan

After a long siege Isfahan surrendered to Afghan forces. The people of Kandahar had been loyal Iranians until 1709 when due to weakness in leadership of King Sultan Hossein, injustice and corruption made them stage uprisings asking for autonomy. After invading Isfahan, Amir Mahmoud killed more than ... Read Full Article:

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