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    * Birouni *

    بیرونی ، محمدبن احمدبن ریحان خوارزمی بیرونی

    Abu Reyhan Birouni was an Iranian scientist, born in 972 AD.Born Sep, 5, 973 in Kath, Kharazmand died Dec, 13 1048 in Ghazneh, known as Alberonius in Latin, was a Persian Muslim scholar and polymath of the 11th century. Birouni was a polymath with an interest in various practical and scholarly fields that relate to what nowadays is described as physics, anthropology, comparative sociology, astronomy, astrology, chemistry, history, geography, mathematics, medicine, psychology, philosophy, and theology. He was the first Muslim scholar to study India and the Brahminical tradition, and has been described as the founder of Indology, and "the first anthropologist". He was one of the first exponents of an experimental method of investigation, introducing this method into mechanics and what is nowadays called mineralogy, psychology, and astronomy.Birouni has for example been described as "one of the very greatest scientists of the Islamic world, and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times.", or as "one of the great scientific minds in all history." The crater Birouni on the Moon is named after him. Tashkent Technical University is also named after Abu Reyhan Birouni and a university founded by Ahmad Shah Masood in Kapisa is named after him.He was born in Kharazm, then part of the Samanid Empire (modern Khiva, Uzbekistan). He studied mathematics and astronomy under Abu Nasr Mansour.He was a colleague of the fellow philosopher and physician Abuali Sina(Avicenna), the historian, philosopher and ethicist Ibn Miskawayh, in a university and science center established by prince Abu al-Abbas Mamun Kharazmshah. He travelled to South Asia or Central Asia (modern day Afghanistan) with Mahmoud Ghaznavi (whose son and successor Masood was, however, his major patron), and accompanied him on his campaigns in India (in 1030), learning Indian languages, and studying the religion and philosophy of its people. There, he also wrote his Tarikh al-Hind ("Chronicles of India"). Birouni wrote his books in Arabic and Persian, and spoke Kharezmian as his first language, though he knew no less than four other languages: Greek, Sanskrit, Syriac, and possibly Berber.As a product of the medieval Middle East, Birouni’s beginnings were not atypical from that of his surroundings. Born in 362/973, recovered records from Birouni’s own hand describes his origins as Tajik, or Iranian, although he was culturally and linguistically Persian. Birouni was born in Biroun, a suburb of the city of Kath, within the Khwariz region, present day Karakal-pakistan. While Birouni’s early life is largely a mystery, the extension of “Birouni” onto his birth name has given scholars a significant start to discovering more exact locations and experiences Birouni may have had. Birouni spent his first twenty-five years in his homeland along the south banks of the Aral Sea, studying under teachers whose knowledge had great influence on his intelligence and interests.[18] No evidence of marriage or children have been found in Birouni’s records. Birouni was a man seemingly devoted to academia.As mentioned before, Birouni is quite an enigmatic figure, at least th

    Tags:Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah, Arabic, Asia, Avicenna, Birouni, Ghaznavi, Ghazneh, Greek, Ibn, India, Iranian, Islamic, Kapisa, Kharazm, Kharazmshah, Mamun, Middle East, Moon, Muslim, Persian, Samanid, Sanskrit, Shah, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

    See Also:Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī

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