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    * Motasem *

    Motassam,Al Mutasim,Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun

    معتصم ، معتصم گجستک،أبو إسحاق عباس المعتصم بن هارون


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    Motasem was a Notorious Abbasi Caliph (Born in 794 – January 5, 842) He succeeded his half-brother al-Mamun. Motasem was born to a Turkic mother who was a concubine of his father, caliph Harunorrashid. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari records that Motasem led the pilgrimage in A.H. 200 (815-816) and in 201. Al-Tabari mentions that in 202 Motasem commanded a force sent against some Kharijite rebels. One of the happenings on this campaign was that one day in combat one of the Turkish military clients’ Ghulam there advanced in between a Kharijite lancer and the future caliph. In A.H. 214 (829-830) Motasem subdued Egypt and executed some leading rebels. He returned in 215 to join Al Mamun in a campaign against the Byzantines. Motasem commanded forces that captured thirty Byzantine strongholds.Al-Tabari records that Al Motasem was hailed caliph on August 9, 833. He promptly ordered the dismantling of Al Mamun's military base at Tyana. He sent Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Mu'sab against a Khurramiyyah revolt centred near Hamadan. Ishaq soundly defeated the rebels. Their survivors fled to the Byzantines.In A.H. 219 (834-835) Muhammad ibn Qasim (al-Alawi) rebelled in Khorasan. He was defeated and brought to the caliph. He was imprisoned, but escaped and was never heard of again. Ujayf ibn Anbasah defeated the Zutt in Iraq. The next year he brought them before Al Motasem in an impressive naval parade. The Zutt were sent to the Byzantine frontier where they fell fighting Byzantines.One of the most difficult problems facing this Caliph, as faced his predecessor, was the uprising of Babak Khorramdin. Babak first rebelled in A.H. 201 (816-817) and overcame a number of caliphate forces sent against him. Finally, Al Motasem provided clear instructions to his general Afshin Khayzar Ibn Kavoos. Following these, Afshin patiently overcame the rebel, securing a significant victory of this reign. Babak was brought to Samarra in A.H. 223 (837-838). He entered the city spectacularly riding on a splendid elephant. He was executed by his own executioner and his head sent to Khorasan. His brother was executed in Baghdad.In that same year of Babak's death, the Byzantine emperor Theophilus launched an attack against a number of Abbasid fortresses. Al Motasem launched a well planned response. Afshin met and defeated Theophilus on July 21, 838, known as Battle of Anzen. Ankyra fell to the Muslim army of 50,000 men (with 50,000 camels and 20,000 mules) and from there they advanced on the stronghold of Amorium. A captive escaped and informed the caliph that one section of Amorium's wall was only a frontal facade. By concentrating bombardment here, Al Motasem captured the city.On his return home, he became aware of a serious conspiracy centered on al-Abbas ibn Al Mamun. A number of senior military commanders were involved. Al-Abbas was executed, as were, among others, al-Shah ibn Sahl, Amr al-Farghana, Ujayf ibn Anbasah and Akhmad ibn al-Khalil. This situation may help explain the increased reliance of this caliph and his successors upon Turkish commanders.The Ghulam were introduced to the Caliphate during Al Motasem's reign. The Ghulam were slave-soldiers taken as prisoners of war from con

    Tags:Abbasi, Abbasid, Abu Ishaq, Afshin, Amorium, Anzen, Babak Khorramdin, Baghdad, Byzantine, Caliphate, Egypt, Hamadan, Ibn, Iraq, Kavoos, Khorasan, Khorramdin, Mamun, Motasem, Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Muslim, Samarra, Shah, Tabari


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