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    Nectanebo II

    نخت هارهبی

    Nectanebo II (Nakhthorhebeh) Egyptian pharaoh of Third Dynasty: 359/358-342/341In the fifth century BCE, Egypt had been part of the Achaemenid Empire, but it had regained its independence in 404. In 373, a large-scale attack had been repelled by pharaoh Nectanebo I, and an age of national restoration had began. Nectanebo was succeeded by his son Teos, who launched an offensive against Persia, trying to gain support in Phoenicia (modern Lebanon), the natural target for Egyptian expansion.Teos set out in the spring of 360, leaving behind his brother Tjahapimu as governor of the country. However, when the expeditionary force had reached Phoenicia, news arrived that Tjahapimu had revolted and had offered the throne to his son Nakhthorhebe or Nectanebo, who was in the army of Teos as commander of the Egyptian soldiers and besieging towns in Syria. According to Greek sources, the cause of the insurrection was discontent among the priests.Teos was unable to suppress the rebellion. One of his mercenary leaders, the aged king Agesilaus of Sparta, sided with Nectanebo, and the other mercenary leader, Chabrias of Athens, was recalled. Thus ended the expedition; the king fled to Persia, where King Artaxerxes II Mnemon granted him refuge. The reign of pharaoh Nectanebo II could begin (359/358). One of his first acts was a sacrifice to the Apis.One of the first problems he had to cope with was another would-be king at Mendes in the eastern Delta, but the Greek mercenaries of Agesilaus made quick work of him. For the next eighteen years, Nectanebo's power remained unchallenged. He sent back the Greek king to whom he owed his throne with a bonus of 250 talents, and when the old war horse died in Cyrene, Nectanebo ordered that the corpse would be royally embalmed before it would be sent to Sparta.The history of the preceding decades had shown that the Persians still regarded Egypt as one of their territories. They had tried to recover it in 385, 383, and 373, and it was likely that one day they would return. Nectanebo used the peace time to build up a new army and employed, as was usual in this age, Greek mercenaries. They demanded pay in silver, and it comes as no surprise to find that Nectanebo's coins resemble Greek coins.The Persians finally arrived in his ninth year of his reign. Little is known about this campaign, except for the fact that two mercenary leaders, Lamias of Sparta and Diophantes of Athens, dealt with the Persian generals. The Persian defeat must have been devastating, because king Artaxerxes 3 Ochus now personally started to build a larger army at Babylon, and a navy was gathered at Sidon, one of the towns of Phoenicia.Nectanebo knew what was afoot and knew how to intervene. The people of Sidon felt oppressed by the sheer size of Artaxerxes' preparations, and the Egyptian king seems to have told their king Tennes (Phoenician Tabnit) that he would come to their assistance if they rebelled. And so it happened: the Sidonians revolted and Nectanebo duly sent 4,000 Greek mercenaries to Sidon. They were commanded by one of the best Greek generals, Mentor of Rhodes, who had been forced to flee to Egypt after he had joined a failed revolt against the Persians. Having lost his navy and

    Tags:Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Agesilaus, Apis, Artaxerxes, Artaxerxes 3, Athens, Babylon, Dynasty, Egypt, Egyptian, Greek, Lebanon, Mnemon, Nakhthorhebe, Ochus, Persia, Persian, Phoenicia, Rhodes, Sparta, Syria

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