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    * Susiana *

    شوشان ، سوسیانا


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    Ancient region in Iran; Modern Khuzestan (Wikipedia) - Elam   (Redirected from Susiana) For other uses, see Elam (disambiguation). Part of a series on theHistory of Iran
    Mythological history
    Ancient period
    • Proto-Elamite (3200–2700 BCE)
    • Elam (2700–539 BCE)
    • Mannaeans (850–616 BCE)
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    • Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)
    • Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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    • Paduspanids (665–1598)
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    Elam (/ˈiːləm/) was an ancient Pre-Iranic civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan (Bakhtiari people) and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam is a transcription from Biblical Hebrew, corresponding to the Sumerian elam(a), the Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East. In classical literature, Elam was more often referred to as Susiana a name derived from its capital, Susa. However, Susiana is not synonymous with Elam and, in its early history, was a distinctly separate cultural and political entity.

    Situated just to the east of Mesopotamia, Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Mesopotamian history, where slightly earlier records have been found. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role during the Persian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded Elam, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. Elamite is generally accepted to be a language isolate.

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    Etymology

    The Elamites called their country Haltamti, Sumerian ELAM, Akkadian Elamû, female Elamītu "resident of Susiana, Elamite". Additionally, it is known as Elam in the Hebrew Bible, where they are called the offspring of Elam, eldest son of Shem (see Elam in the Bible; Genesis 10:22, Ezra 4:9).

    The high country of Elam was increasingly identified by its low-lying later capital, Susa. Geographers after Ptolemy called it Susiana. The Elamite civilization was primarily centered in the province of what is modern-day Khuzestān and Ilam in prehistoric times. The modern provincial name Khuzestān is derived from the Persian name for Susa: Old Persian Hūjiya "Elam" (Old Persian:

    Tags:Abbasid, Abbasid Caliphate, Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Akkadian, Anshan, Atabegs of Yazd, Atropatene, Bakhtiari, Bible, Bronze Age, Caliphate, Damavand, Elam, Elamite, Hebrew, History of Iran, Hotaki, Ilam, Ilkhanate, Iran, Iranian, Iraq, Islamic, Islamic Republic, Islamic Republic of Iran, Khuzestan, Mesopotamia, Muzaffarid, Near East, Old Persian, Pahlavi, Parthian, Parthian Empire, Persian, Pishdadian, Proto-Elamite, Ptolemy, Qajar, Safavid, Safavid Empire, Saffarid, Samanid, Seleucid, Susa, Susiana, Tahirid, Timurid, Timurid dynasty, Umayyad, Wikipedia, Yazd, Zand


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