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    (Wikipedia) - Automotive industry   (Redirected from Automotive) Play mediaA video showing new Škoda cars being transported by rail at Kutná Hora město train station in the Czech Republic

    The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world''s most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

    The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by SAE member Elmer Sperry.

    Contents
    • 1 History
    • 2 Safety
    • 3 Economy
    • 4 World motor vehicle production
      • 4.1 By year
      • 4.2 By country
      • 4.3 By manufacturer
    • 5 Company relationships
    • 6 See also
    • 7 References
    • 8 External links

    History Main article: History of the automobileThomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916Citroën assembly line in 1918

    The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world''s auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world''s leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units.

    Safety Main article: Automobile safety

    Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.

    Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.

    In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

    Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.

    Economy See also: Automotive industry by country

    Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion US gallons (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport. Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries.

    World motor vehicle production See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production By year

    Global production of motorvehicles

    (cars and commercial vehicles)

    Year Production Change Source
    1997 54,434,000  
    1998 52,987,000 -2.7%
    1999 56,258,892 6.2%
    2000 58,374,162 3.8%
    2001 56,304,925 -3.5%
    2002 58,994,318 4.8%
    2003 60,663,225 2.8%
    2004 64,496,220 6.3%
    2005 66,482,439 3.1%
    2006 69,222,975 4.1%
    2007 73,266,061 5.8%
    2008 70,520,493 -3.7%
    2009 61,791,868 -12.4%
    2010 77,857,705 26.0%
    2011 79,989,155 3.1%
    2012 84,141,209 5.3%
    2013 87,300,115 3.7%

    By countryAutomobile Export Treemap (2012) from Harvard Atlas of Economic ComplexityMain article: List of countries by motor vehicle production
    • v
    • t
    • e
    « previous year — Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2013 — next year »
    Motor vehicle production (units)
    Country 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000 10,000,000 11,000,000 12,000,000 13,000,000 14,000,000 15,000,000 16,000,000 17,000,000 18,000,000 19,000,000 20,000,000 21,000,000 22,000,000
     China 22,116,825
     United States 11,045,902
     Japan 9,630,070
     Germany 5,718,222
     South Korea 4,521,429
     India 3,880,938
     Brazil 3,740,418
     Mexico 3,052,395
     Thailand 2,532,577
     Canada 2,379,806
     Russia 2,175,311
     Spain 2,163,338
     France 1,740,000
     UK 1,597,433
     Indonesia 1,208,211
     Czech Rep. 1,132,931
     Turkey 1,125,534
     Slovakia 975,000
     Argentina 791,007
     Iran 743,680
    "Production Statistics". OICA. 
    By manufacturer

    Rank of manufacturers by production, 2012

    Rank Group Country Total Cars LCV HCV Heavy Bus
    1 Toyota  Japan 10,104,424 8,381,968 1,448,107 268,377 5,972
    2 GM  United States 9,285,425 6,608,567 2,658,612 7,558 10,688
    3 Volkswagen  Germany 9,254,742 8,576,964 486,544 169,064 22,170
    4 Hyundai  South Korea 7,126,413 6,761,074 279,579 70,290 15,470
    5 Ford  United States 5,595,483 3,123,340 2,394,221 77,922
    6 Nissan  Japan 4,889,379 3,830,954 1,022,974 35,451
    7 Honda  Japan 4,110,857 4,078,376 32,481
    8 PSA  France 2,911,764 2,554,059 357,705
    9 Suzuki  Japan 2,893,602 2,483,721 409,881
    10 Renault  France 2,676,226 2,302,769 373,457
    11 Chrysler  United States 2,371,427 656,892 1,702,235 12,300
    12 Daimler AG  Germany 2,195,152 1,455,650 257,496 450,622 31,384
    13 Fiat  Italy 2,127,295 1,501,979 498,984 85,513 40,819
    14 BMW  Germany 2,065,477 2,065,216 261
    15 SAIC  China 1,783,548 1,523,398 190,848 67,805 1,497
    16 Tata  India 1,241,239 744,067 314,399 165,171 17,602
    17 Mazda  Japan 1,189,283 1,097,661 91,622
    18 Dongfeng Motor  China 1,137,950 539,845 245,641 337,545 14,919
    19 Mitsubishi  Japan 1,109,731 980,001 127,435 2,295
    20 Changan  China 1,063,721 835,334 166,727 59,978 1,682
    21 Geely  China 922,906 922,906
    22 Fuji  Japan 753,320 734,959 18,361
    23 BAIC  China 720,828 83,033 285,081 348,659 4,055
    24 FAW  China 706,012 480,443 52,983 168,793 3,793
    25 Great Wall  China 624,426 487,704 136,722
    26 Mahindra  India 606,418 429,101 173,083 3,461 773
    27 Isuzu  Japan 600,470 32,309 565,617 2,544
    28 Chery  China 563,951 550,565 13,386
    29 AvtoVAZ  Russia 553,232 553,232
    30 Brilliance  China 489,770 231,527 231,862 26,381
    31 JAC  China 476,356 200,278 114,864 145,811 15,403
    32 BYD  China 455,444 455,444
    33 Chongqing Lifan Motor Co.  China 272,657 183,750 24,035 64,872
    34 Volvo  Sweden 234,680 224,000 10,680
    35 Proton  Malaysia 162,455 134,934 27,521
    36 China National Heavy Duty Truck  China 127,792 1,224 125,792 776
    37 Paccar  United States 125,336 125,336
    38 GAZ  Russia 125,319 88,899 21,561 14,859
    39 Ashok Leyland  India 117,738 30,776 61,519 25,443
    40 Hunan Jiangnan Automobile Manufacturing Co.  China 117,051 117,051
    41 Guangzhou Auto Industry  China 114,157 87,408 25,611 1,138
    42 Shannxi  China 86,283 8,044 166 77,808 265
    43 Porsche  Germany 86,083 86,083
    44 South East (Fujian)  China 85,515 81,512 4,003
    45 Navistar  United States 83,371 72,005 11,366
    46 Xiamen King Long  China 78,226 36,451 41,775
    47 UAZ  Russia 70,434 32,469 37,965
    48 Tangjun Ou Ling  China 69,167 16,459 52,708
    49 Hebei Zhongxing  China 63,221 4,955 58,266
    50 Sichuan Nanjun  China 60,743 18,296 41,602 845

    OICA defines these entries as follows:

    • Passenger cars are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the transport of passengers, and comprising no more than eight seats in addition to the driver''s seat.
    • Light commercial vehicles (LCV) are motor vehicles with at least four wheels, used for the carriage of goods. Mass given in tons (metric tons) is used as a limit between light commercial vehicles and heavy trucks. This limit depends on national and professional definitions and varies between 3.5 and 7 tons. Minibuses, derived from light commercial vehicles, are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver''s seat and having a maximum mass between 3.5 and 7 tons.
    • Heavy trucks (HCV) are vehicles intended for the carriage of goods. Maximum authorised mass is over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tons) of light commercial vehicles. They include tractor vehicles designed for towing semi-trailers.
    • Buses and coaches are used for the transport of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver''s seat, and having a maximum mass over the limit (ranging from 3.5 to 7 tones) of light commercial vehicles.
    Company relationships

    It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

    Notable current relationships include:

    • AB Volvo and Eicher Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles.
    • Anadolu Group and Isuzu have a 50-50% joint venture called Anadolu Isuzu.
    • Beijing Automotive Group has a joint venture with Daimler called Beijing Benz, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called Beijing Foton Daimler Automobile. BAG also has a joint venture with Hyundai called Beijing Hyundai, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
    • BMW and Brilliance have a joint venture called BMW Brilliance. BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake.
    • Chang''an Automobile Group has three joint ventures, one with PSA Peugeot Citroen(CAPSA), both hold a 50-50% stake, one with Suzuki(Changan Suzuki), both hold a 50-50% stake, and one with Ford and Mazda(Changan Ford Mazda), CAG holds a 50% stake, Ford holds a 35% stake, and Mazda holds a 15% stake. Chang''an and Ford have a joint venture called Chang''an Ford Nanjing. Jiangling and Chang''an have a joint venture called Jiangxi Jiangling.
    • Chery has a joint venture with Tata Motors called Chery Jaguar Land Rover, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. Chery and Israel Corporation has a joint venture called Qoros, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
    • Daimler AG holds a 20% stake in Eicher Motors, a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ, an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation, a 4.7% stake in Tesla Motors, a 6.75% stake in Tata Motors and a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance, a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, and an 85% stake in Master Motors. Daimler and BYD Auto have a joint venture called Denza, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
    • Dongfeng Motor Corporation and Nissan have a 50-50% joint venture called Venucia, and another 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Motor Company. Dongfeng and PSA Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen, a 50-50% joint venture with Honda called Dongfeng Honda, a joint venture with AB Volvo called Dongfeng Nissan-Diesel,a 50-50% joint venture with Renault named Dongfeng Renault in Wuhan, which was founded in the end of 2013
    • Fiat holds a 90% stake in Ferrari, 100% of Chrysler, a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija and 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding.
    • Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks.
    • Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks.
    • Ford Motor Company holds a 3% stake in Mazda, a 12.1% share in Aston Martin, a 49% share in Jiangling Motors. Ford and Navistar International have a 50-50 joint venture called Blue Dimond Truck. Ford and Sollers JSC have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford Sollers. Both Ford and Koç Holding own a 41% stake in Ford Otosan. Ford and Lio Ho Group hanve a joint venture called Ford Lio Ho, Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%.
    • FAW Group and GM has a 50-50 joint venture called FAW-GM, a 50-50 joint venture with Volkswagen Group called FAW-Volkswagen, and a 50-50 joint venture with Toyota called Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor and both companies also have another joint venture called Ranz. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile
    • Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, China Motor, and Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz. FMG, China Motor, and Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, and both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake.
    • Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in Manganese Bronze Holdings.
    • General Motors holds a 20% stake in Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines. General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC), and has two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake in General Motors India Private Limited. And General Motors holds a 94% stake in GM Korea and SAIC Group holds a 6% stake. General Motors and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called GM Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%. General Motors and UzAvtosanoat also have a joint venture called UzDaewooAvto both each hold a 50-50 stake. GM, AvtoVAZ, and EBRD have a joint venture called GM-AvtoVAZ, Both GM and AvtoVAZ owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%.
    • Hyundai Motor Group and Kibar Holding has a joint venture called Hyundai Assan Otomotiv, Hyundai Motor Group owns 70% and Kibar Holding owns 30%.
    • Isuzu and General Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called Isuzu Truck South Africa. Isuzu owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines. Isuzu, Sollers JSC, and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called Sollers-Isuzu, Sollers JSC owns66%, Isuzu owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%.
    • Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International has a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%.
    • MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania. MAN and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 51% and MAN owns 49%.
    • Marcopolo owns 19% of New Flyer Industries.
    • Navistar International and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar.
    • Nissan owns 43% of Nissan Shatai.
    • Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% voting stake in Volkswagen Group. The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group.
    • PSA Peugeot Citroen and Toyota have a 50-50% joint venture called Toyota Peugeot Citroen Automobile Czech, and another joint venture with Chang''an called Chang''an PSA automobile.
    • Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance( Renault-Nissan Alliance ) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. The alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
    • Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ and an 80.1% stake in Renault Samsung.
    • SAIPA holds a 51% stake in Pars Khodro.
    • Sollers JSC is involved in Joint ventures with Ford(Ford Sollers) and Mazda to produce cars.
    • Toyota holds a 51% stake in Daihatsu, 16.5% in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent company of Subaru, and a 10% stake in Tesla, .
    • Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), a 53.7% stake in MAN SE (55.9% voting rights), and a 99.55% stake in the Audi Group. Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.Volkswagen Group has a 19.9% stake in Suzuki, and Suzuki has a 5% stake in Volkswagen.
    • Paccar inc. has a 19% stake in Tatra.
    • Tata Motors also formed a joint venture with Fiat and gained access to Fiat’s diesel engine technology.Tata Motors sells Fiat cars in India through a 50/50 joint venture Fiat Automobiles India Limited, and is looking to extend its relationship with Fiat and Iveco to other segments. Tata and Marcopolo have a Tata Marcopolo, Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%.
    • ZAP owns 51% of Zhejiang Jonway.

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