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    * Battle of Issus *

    نبرد ایسوس

    The Battle of Issus (or the Battle at Issus) occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC. The invading troops, led by the young Alexander of Macedonia, defeated the army personally led by Dariush 3 of Achaemenid Persia in the second great battle for primacy in Asia. After Alexander's forces successfully forced a crossing of the Hellespont (the Dardanelles) and defeated the Persian satraps led by a Greek mercenary, Memnon of Rhodes, in a prior encounter, the Battle of the Granicus, Dariush took personal charge of his army, gathered a large army from the depths of the empire, and maneuvered to cut the Macedonian line of supply, requiring Alexander to countermarch his forces, setting the stage for the battle near the mouth of the Pinarus River and south of the village of Issus.Eventual accounts tell of bodies piled within the waters high enough to dam its flow, and the river running red with blood. So while Alexander is known to have repeatedly emphasized the importance of maintaining contact with the beach to his sub-commander on the left (seaward) flank, it is safe to assume a lot of action that day along all the water course in its 2.5 km travel through the narrow and hilly coastal plain that prevented the Persians, with their greater numbers, from outflanking the attacking Greeks.Dariush was caught by surprise when Alexander led the attack personally on the right while instructing the Macedonian phalanx trained infantry, his main body, to make contact and just hold the main Persian army in check; thus in essence he advanced to take up a defensive posture. Meanwhile Alexander personally led the more elite Macedonian Companion cavalry against the Persian left up against the hills, and cut up the enemy on the less encumbering terrain generating a quick rout. After achieving a breakthrough, Alexander demonstrated he could do the difficult and held the cavalry successfully in check after it broke the Persian right. Alexander regrouped, and then turned the body into the right flank of the Persian center, butchering Dariush body guard and under generals, provoking a panic and flight by that emperor himself, and causing a general rout. Any subsequent pursuit of Dariush was delayed and generally impeded by the fleeing Persian troops and camp followers, although he managed to follow Dariush chariot until after dark some 24 to 25 km before giving up the chase.The battle took place south of the ancient town Issus, which is close to present-day Turkish town of Iskenderun (the Turkish equivalent of "Alexandria", founded by Alexander to commemorate his victory), on either side of a small river called Pinarus. At that location the distance from the gulf of Issus to the surrounding mountains is only 2.6 km, a place where Dariush could not take advantage of his superiority in numbers. The Battle of Issus was a decisive Macedonian victory and it marked the beginning of the end of Persian power. It was the first time the Persian army had been defeated with the King Darius 3. His escape left him great disgrace that worked against him in the next two battles. (Wikipedia) - Battle of Issus For other uses, see Battle of Issus (disambiguation).

    Coordinates: 36°50′16″N 36°12′40″E / 36.837894°N 36.211109°E / 36.837894; 36.211109

    Battle of Issus Belligerents Commanders and leaders Strength Casualties and losses
    Part of the Wars of Alexander the Great
    Alexander battling Darius at the Battle of Issus (Naples National Archaeological Museum)
    Date Location Result Territorial changes
    November 5, 333 BC
    Issus, Turkey
    Hellenic victory.
    Alexander controls southern Asia Minor.
    Hellenic League Achaemenid Empire
    • Greek mercenaries
    Alexander the Great Parmenion Craterus, Hephaestion Ptolemy Pantordanus Sitalces II Menes of Pella Balacrus Darius III Arsames † Reomithres † Atizyes † Bubaces † Sabaces †
    40,850 in total: 13,000 peltasts, 22,000 heavy infantry, 5,850 cavalry 50-100,000 (modern sources) 250,000—600,000 (ancient sources) (See below)
    7,000 ~20,000
    • v
    • t
    • e
    Alexander''s Persian campaigns
    • Granicus (334 BC)
    • Miletus (334 BC)
    • Halicarnassus (334 BC)
    • Issus (333 BC)
    • Tyre (332 BC)
    • Gaza (332 BC)
    • Gaugamela (331 BC)
    • Uxian Defile (331 BC)
    • Persian Gate (330 BC)
    • Cyropolis (329 BC)
    • Jaxartes (329 BC)
    • Gabai (328 BC)
    • Sogdian Rock (327 BC)

    The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC between the Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Persia, led by Darius III, in the second great battle of Alexander''s conquest of Asia. The invading Macedonian troops defeated Persia. After the Hellenic League soundly defeated the Persian satraps of Asia Minor (led by the Greek mercenary, Memnon of Rhodes) at the Battle of the Granicus, Darius took personal command of his army. He gathered reinforcements and led his men in a surprise march behind the Hellenic advance to cut their line of supply. This forced Alexander to countermarch, setting the stage for the battle near the mouth of the Pinarus River and the town of Issus.

    The battle of Issus by Jan Brueghel the Elder in the Louvre.

    • 1 Location
    • 2 Background
    • 3 Motives
    • 4 Combatants
      • 4.1 Persian army
      • 4.2 Hellenic army
    • 5 Battle
    • 6 Aftermath
    • 7 Depictions of the battle
    • 8 References
    • 9 Sources
      • 9.1 Ancient
      • 9.2 Modern
    • 10 External links


    The battle took place south of the ancient town Issus, which is close to present-day Turkish town of Iskenderun (the Turkish equivalent of "Alexandria", founded by Alexander to commemorate his victory), on either side of a small river called Pinarus. At that location the distance from the gulf of Issus to the surrounding mountains is only 2.6 km (2 mi), a place where Darius could not take advantage of his superiority in numbers. Speculation on the location of the Pinarus has taken place for over 80 years. Older historians believed it to be the Deli Tchai river, but historians N.G.L. Hammond and A.M. Devine have made convincing claims that the Pinarus is actually the Payas River, the latter using eye-witness examination of the river, which may not have drastically changed since antiquity. Their evidence is based on Callisthenes'' accounts of the measurements of the battlefield and distances marched by both side''s armies in the prelude to the battle and distance given by Diodorus after the battle.

    BackgroundMovements to the battlefield.

    Alexander set out into Asia in 334 BC and defeated the local Persian satraps at the Battle of the Granicus. He then proceeded to occupy all of Asia Minor, with the idea of capturing all coastal settlements so as to negate the power of the vastly superior Persian fleet. He captured several important settlements such as Miletus in 334 BC and Halicarnassus, a siege lasting four months, starting in late December the same year. While Alexander was in Tarsus he heard of Darius massing a great army in Babylon. If Darius were to reach the Gulf of Issus he could use the support from the Persian fleet under Pharnabazus still operating in the Mediterranean Sea, thus easing his supply and possibly landing troops behind the enemy. Alexander kept his main army at Tarsus but sent Parmenion ahead to occupy the coast around Issus. In November, Alexander received reports that the great Persian army had advanced into Syria, to a town named Sochi. Alexander decided to mass his scattered army and advance south from Issus through the Pass of Jonah.

    Darius knew that Parmenion held the Pass of Jonah and thus chose a northern route of advance. The Persians captured Issus without opposition, and cut off the hands of all the sick and wounded that Alexander had left behind. Now Darius found out he had placed his army behind the Hellenic League and had cut their supply lines. He then advanced to the south and got no further than the river Pinarus before his scouts spotted Alexander marching north. Darius had to set up camp on this narrow coastal plain.

    MotivesInitial dispositions of Persian and Macedonian forces.

    There is much debate as to the motives of Alexander and Darius preceding Issus. A strong and convincing modern perspective, based on Curtius, is that Darius was forced to move camp to terrain that favored Alexander because Alexander was fighting defensively due to a recommendation by his war council and Parmenion. Darius'' large army could not be supported in the field during winter and his cities in Phoenicia were already in unrest at the arrival of Alexander. Darius was forced to move his large army to a small battlefield, greatly to the advantage of Alexander''s smaller force.

    Alexander was waiting for Darius to come south around the Amanus Mountain range because the pass Darius would have used, the Belen Pass, was much closer to Sochi and offered the quickest access to the area Alexander defended. Alexander was waiting 15 km (9.3 mi) to the west of the Belen Pass at Myriandrus to spring a trap on Darius as he crossed through the Belen Pass or through the Pillar of Jonah if he moved north, where Darius'' army would be disorganized and disjointed in the narrow crossing. Darius instead moved north from Sochi and around the mountains, emerging behind Alexander''s position and on his supply and communication lines. Thus Alexander was forced to march to Darius, who had caught him off guard in a large flanking maneuver. This gives the illusion that Darius was the one acting defensively, since Alexander was forced to march to him.

    Combatants Persian army Units Numbers
    Peltasts 69,000
    Persian Immortals 10,000
    Greek mercenaries 10,000
    Cavalry 11,000
    Total 100,000

    Some ancient sources (Arrian and Plutarch), who based their accounts on earlier Greek sources, estimated 600,000 Persian soldiers in total, while Diodorus and Justin estimated 400,000, and Curtius Rufus estimated 250,000.

    Modern historians find Arrian''s count of six hundred thousand men highly unlikely. They argue that the logistics of fielding more than 100,000 soldiers in battle was extremely difficult at the time. Hans Delbrück gives an estimate as small as 25,000, although most (including Engels and Green) estimate the total size of Darius'' army to be no larger than 100,000 at Issus, including 11,000 cavalry, 10,000 Persian Immortals, and 10,000 Greek mercenaries. Warry estimates 108,000 in total.

    Hellenic army

    The size of the Hellenic army may not have exceeded 40,000 men, including their other allies, led by Alexander. Alexander''s army may have consisted of about 22,000 phalangites and hoplites, 13,000 peltasts, and 5,850 cavalry.


    The Greeks advanced through the Pillar of Jonah. Alexander led his Companion cavalry on the right flank and he set his Thessalian allied cavalry on the left of the phalanx with Parmenion in command.

    Darius formed his line with his heavy cavalry concentrated next to the coast on his right, followed by the Greek mercenary phalanx (historian A.M Devine places them at a strength of 12,000, comparable to Alexander''s Greek phalanx). Next to the Greek phalanx Darius spread his Persian infantry, the Cardaces, along the river and into the foothills, where they wrapped around to the other bank and threatened Alexander''s right flank (the formation resembled gamma, Γ). Arrian gives an inflated figure of 20,000 to these troops. Darius positioned himself in the centre with his best infantry, the Greek mercenaries, and his royal cavalry guard. According to some historians, like P. Stratikis, he was trying to replicate the Hellenic battle formation of the Battle of the Granicus.

    Alexander''s decisive attack.

    The Persian cavalry first charged Parmenion and the allied cavalry, crossing the river to open battle. Alexander''s left wing became the crux of the battle, as at Gaugamela two years later, where Parmenion held the wing long enough against superior Persian numbers for Alexander to make his calculated cavalry strike against Darius and break the Persian army. The Hypaspists led by Alexander, on foot, delivered an assault during this time across the riverbed on the Cardaces and managed to punch a hole through the Persian line.

    Alexander then mounted a horse at the head of his Companion cavalry and led a direct assault against Darius who fled from the battlefield. Alexander then saw his left flank and center in trouble, let Darius flee, and crashed into the rear of the Greek mercenaries. The Greek mercenaries broke up. The Persians saw that their Great King had gone and that the battle was being lost, and they abandoned their positions and fled in full rout. The Hellenic cavalry pursued the fleeing Persians for as long as there was light. As with most ancient battles, significant carnage occurred after the battle as pursuing Greeks slaughtered their crowded, disorganized foe. Arrian notes that Ptolemy I mentions that, while pursuing Darius, Alexander and his bodyguards came upon a gap which they easily crossed on the bodies of dead Persians. It was a decisive victory for Alexander.

    AftermathThe family of Darius in front of Alexander, by Justus Sustermans and displayed in the Biblioteca Museu Víctor Balaguer

    The Battle of Issus was a decisive Hellenic victory and it marked the beginning of the end of Persian power. It was the first time the Persian army had been defeated with the King (Darius III at the time) present. After the battle, the Hellens captured Darius'' wife, Stateira I, his daughters, Stateira II and Drypetis, and his mother, Sisygambis; all of whom had accompanied Darius on his campaign. Alexander, who later married Stateira II, treated the captured women with great respect.

    Depictions of the battleAltdorfer''s The Battle of Alexander at Issus.
    • German Renaissance painter and printmaker Albrecht Altdorfer (c. 1480-1538) dramatically depicted the battle in his 1529 painting The Battle of Alexander at Issus.
    • American Abstract Expressionist painter Cy Twombly diagrammed the battle in his 1968 painting Synopsis of a Battle.
    • The 2004 Oliver Stone film Alexander was expected to depict the battle, instead, it put elements of the Battle of the Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela all together. It was labeled as the Battle of Gaugamela but held distinctive elements of all three battles. The Battle of the Hydaspes River was also featured.
    • Contemporary fine-artist Rossi d''Providence has created an oil painting of the Battle at Issus for the Classics Department at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island.

    Tags:1968, Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, American, Anatolia, Archaeological, Asia, Asia Minor, Babylon, Battle of Issus, Brown University, Callisthenes, Casualties, Darius III, Dariush, Dariush 3, Drypetis, Gaugamela, Gaza, German, Granicus, Greek, Issus, Jonah, Macedonia, Mediterranean, Mediterranean Sea, Memnon, Memnon of Rhodes, Miletus, Oliver Stone, Parmenion, Persia, Persian, Persian Immortals, Phoenicia, Ptolemy, Rhode Island, Rhodes, Sisygambis, Syria, Turkey, Turkish, Wikipedia

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