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    * Hossein Fatemi *

    حسین فاطمی


    Pahlavi_Mosaddegh_Fatemi_Hospital.jpg
    Dr. Hossein Fatemi (1917 - 10 November 1954) was a scholar, journalist, and famous politician of Iran. A close associate of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, he proposed Nationalization of Oil and gas assets. Initially a journalist, he served as Foreign Affairs Minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. After the 1953 CIA-orchestrated coup d'état toppled the democratically elected government of Mosaddegh, Fatemi was arrested, tortured, and convicted by a military court, and executed by a firing squad.Fatemi was born in Nain, Iran, the youngest of five. In his teens he moved to Isfahan for higher education where he became involved in the publication of the newspaper Bakhtar, owned by his older brother. This same paper was later moved to Tehran in 1942. He was a caustic critic of the Iranian monarch Reza Shah, and his views were candidly reflected in his newspaper editorials. From 1944 to 1948 he studied in France, where he earned a bachelor's degree in journalism and a doctorate degree in law.From its founding in 1949, he was an active member of the Iranian National Front, the democratic and nationalist movement of Mosaddegh, and served as an assistant to prime minister and as deputy of Tehran in the Iranian parliament. At the age of 33 he served in Mosaddegh's cabinet, as the minister of Foreign Affairs—the youngest minister of Foreign Affairs in Iranian history. According to Mosaddegh's memoir published after Fatemi's death, Fatemi was the initiator of the policy of Nationalization of Oil in Iran. On 15 February 1952, he was the target of an unsuccessful assassination by the Islamist group of Fadayian Eslam, who also had planned to assassinate Mosaddegh. In the shooting attack, Fatemi suffered serious injuries which sidelined him for the next seven or eight months, and left permanent wounds.[9]After the CIA backed military coup d'état on Aug, 19, 1953, Mosaddegh was arrested, tried and convicted of treason by the Shah's military court. On Dec, 21, 1953, he was sentenced to death. Later, Mosaddegh's sentence was commuted to three years' solitary confinement in a military prison, followed by house arrest in his Ahmadabad residence, until his death, on March, 5 1967. Mosaddegh supporters were rounded up, imprisoned, tortured or executed. The minister of Foreign Affairs and the closest associate of Mosaddegh: Hossein Fatemi was executed by order of the Shah's military court. The order was carried out by firing squad on Oct. 29, 1953.From its founding in 1949, Hossein Fatemi was an active member of the Iranian National Front, the democratic and nationalist movement of Mosaddegh, and served as an assistant to prime minister and as deputy of Tehran in the Iranian parliament. At the age of 33 he served in Mosaddegh's cabinet, as the minister of Foreign Affairs-the youngest minister of Foreign Affairs in Iranian history. According to Mosaddegh's memoir published after Fatemi's death, Fatemi was the initiator of the policy of oil nationalization in Iran. On Feb, 15 1952, he was the target of an unsuccessful assassination by the Islamist group of Fadayian Eslam, who also had planned to assassinate Mosaddegh. In the shooting attack, Fatemi suff (Wikipedia) - Hossein Fatemi For other uses, see Hossein Fatemi (disambiguation). Hossein Fatemi Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran Monarch Prime Minister Preceded by Succeeded by Personal details Born Died Political party Spouse(s) Alma mater Religion
    In office October 1952 – 19 August 1953
    Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
    Mohammad Mosaddegh
    Hossein Navab
    Abdol-Hossein Meftah
    (1917-02-10)10 February 1917 Nain, Iran
    10 November 1954(1954-11-10) (aged 37) Tehran, Iran
    National Front
    Parivash Sototi (1940-1954)
    University of Tehran
    Shia Islam

    Hossein Fatemi (10 February 1917 - 10 November 1954) was a scholar, journalist, and famous politician of Iran. A close associate of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, he proposed nationalization of Iranian oil and gas assets. Initially a journalist, he served as Foreign Affairs Minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. After the 1953 CIA-orchestrated coup d''état toppled the democratically elected government of Mosaddegh, Fatemi was arrested, tortured, and convicted by a military court of "treason against the Shah", and executed by a firing squad.

    Contents
    • 1 Early life and education
    • 2 Career
    • 3 Arrest and execution
    • 4 Legacy
    • 5 See also
    • 6 References

    Early life and education

    Fatemi was born in Nain, Iran on 10 February 1917, the youngest of five. He was educated in his hometown. In his teens he moved to Isfahan for higher education. He was a caustic critic of the Iranian monarch Rezā Shāh, and his views were candidly reflected in his newspaper editorials. From 1944 to 1948 he studied in France, where he earned a bachelor''s degree in journalism. There he also received a doctorate degree in law in 1948.

    Fatemi with Mohammad Mosaddegh at the United Nations Security CouncilCareerFatemi after a trip to France

    After graduation, Fatemi returned to Iran and became instrumental in launching the daily titled Bākhtar (West) in Isfahan. From its founding in 1949, Fatemi was an active member of the Iranian National Front, the democratic and nationalist movement of Mosaddegh. Later the daily was moved to Tehran and began to be the mouthpiece of the front.

    He served as an assistant to the prime minister and as deputy of Tehran in the Iranian parliament. At the age of 33 he was appointed minister of foreign affairs to the Mosaddegh''s cabinet in October 1952—the youngest minister of foreign affairs in Iranian history. He replaced Hossein Navab in the post. According to Mosaddegh''s memoir, published after Fatemi''s death, Fatemi was the initiator of the policy of oil nationalization in Iran.

    Assassination attempt

    On 15 February 1952, Fatemi was the target of an unsuccessful assassination by the Islamist group of Fadayan-e Islam, who also had planned to assassinate Mosaddegh. In the shooting attack, Fatemi suffered serious injuries which sidelined him for the next seven or eight months, and left permanent wounds.

    Arrest and execution

    In August 1953, Mosaddegh''s government was overthrown by a CIA-orchestrated coup d''état. On 14 August, Fatemi was to be arrested along with Mosaddegh and other close associates, but the first U.S.-led coup attempt failed. Fatemi was arrested by a Royalist group of officers and soldiers who were in such a hurry that he was not allowed to put shoes on, but he was released on the morning of 15 August and went directly to Mosaddegh''s residence. Fearful of the apparent failure of the coup, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi immediately fled to Baghdad. In the aftermath of the first coup attempt, while Mosaddegh still remained a strong proponent of constitutional monarchy, Fatemi advised Mosaddegh to declare a republic in light of the failed coup attempt. Subsequently, Fatemi, in a fiery editorial in his newspaper Bākhtar and a public speech, denounced the Shah as "a traitor to his country", a "venomous serpent", and a "coward". On 19 August, the offices of Fatemi''s newspaper were attacked and burnt down by mobs incited by an Iranian CIA agent. Later that day the second coup attempt succeeded. With Mosaddegh arrested, Fatemi went underground, taking shelter in a Tudeh safe house.

    He began to write his memoir, but after 204 days of concealment, he was discovered and arrested on 13 March 1954. He was then tortured and convicted by a military court on 10 October for "treason against the Shah" and sentenced to death.

    Fatemi was executed by firing squad at Ghasr barracks at 6am on 10 November 1954 (19 Aban 1333 AP) in Tehran, when he was still suffering from fever and the injuries of the unsuccessful attempt of assassination on him by Fadayan-e Islam. Fatemi was buried in Ebn-e Babooyeh cemetery in Shahr-e Ray, near Tehran.

    Legacy

    There is an avenue in Tehran named after Fatemi. Mossadegh often quoted Fatemi as the force behind the nationalization of oil from inception to implementation. After the 1953 CIA-MI6 coup, the Shah gave back half of Iran''s oil and gas rights, mainly to US-UK oil companies, with a few percent for French and Italian ones, under a new agreement known as the Oil Consortium. Other countries in the Persian Gulf and North Africa followed the example and took national ownership of their oil and gas fields. President Nasser of Egypt was influenced by the earlier example of Fatemi''s thesis carried out by Mossadegh when he nationalized the Suez canal.

    Tags:AP, Aban, Africa, Ahmadabad, Assassination, Baghdad, Bakhtar, CIA, Egypt, Fadayan-e Islam, Fadayian Eslam, Fatemi, Foreign Affairs Minister of Iran, France, French, Hossein Fatemi, Iran, Iranian, Isfahan, Islam, Italian, MI6, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mosaddegh, Nain, Nain, Iran, National Front, Nationalization of Oil, Nations, Pahlavi, Persian, Persian Gulf, President, Prime Minister, Ray, Reza Pahlavi, Reza Shah, Royalist, Shah, Shia, Shia Islam, Suez, Tehran, UK, US, United Nations, University of Tehran, Wikipedia


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