• Section: History /Monday 13th October 2014

    Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Search β):

    * Neo-Hittite *

    نوین-هیتیایی ، پشت-هیتیایی

    (Wikipedia) - Syro-Hittite states   (Redirected from Neo-Hittite) Part of a series on the History of Turkey
    Palaeolithic Anatolia c. 500,000–  10,000 BC
    Mesolithic Anatolia c. 11,000–  9,000 BC
    Neolithic Anatolia c. 8,000–  5,500 BC
    Bronze Age
    Troy 3000–700 BC
    Hattians 2500–2000 BC
    Akkadian Empire 2400–2150 BC
    Luvia 2300–1400 BC
    Assyria 1950–1750 BC
    Achaeans (Homer) 1700–1300 BC
    Kizzuwatna 1650–1450 BC
    Hittites 1680–1220 BC
    Arzawa 1500–1320 BC
    Mitanni 1500–1300 BC
    Hayasa-Azzi 1500–1290 BC
    Lycia 1450–350 BC
    Assuwa 1300–1250 BC
    Diauehi 1200–800 BC
    Neo-Hittites 1200–800 BC
    Phrygia 1200–700 BC
    Caria 1150–547 BC
    Tuwanuwa 1000–700 BC
    Ionia 1000–545 BC
    Urartu 859–595/585 BC
    Classical Age
    • Classical Anatolia
    • Classical Thrace
    Lydia 685–547 BC
    Achaemenid Empire 559–331 BC
    Kingdom of Alexander the Great 334–301 BC
    Kingdom of Cappadocia 322-130 BC
    Antigonids 306–168 BC
    Seleucid Empire 305–64 BC
    Kingdom of Pontus 302–64 BC
    Bithynia 297–74 BC
    Kingdom of Pergamon 282–129 BC
    Galatia 281–64 BC
    Armenian Empire 190 BC–428 AD
    Roman Republic 133–27 BC
    Kingdom of Commagene 163 BC–72 AD
    Roman Empire 27 BC–330 AD
    Sassanian Empire 224–651 BC
    Medieval Age
    • Medieval Anatolia
    Byzantine Empire 330–1453
    Rashidun Caliphate 637–656
    Great Seljuk State 1037–1194
    Danishmends 1071–1178
    Anatolian beyliks 1081-1423
    Sultanate of Rum 1077–1307
    Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia 1078–1375
    County of Edessa 1098–1150
    Artuqids 1101–1409
    Empire of Trebizond 1204–1461
    Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261
    Latin Empire 1204–1261
    Ilkhanate 1256–1335
    Kara Koyunlu 1375–1468
    Ak Koyunlu 1378–1501
    Ottoman Empire
    Rise 1299–1453
    Growth 1453–1606
    Stagnation 1606–1699
    Decline 1699–1792
    Dissolution 1792–1923
    Republic of Turkey
    • Periods of Turkey
    War of Independence 1919–1922
    Provisional government 1920–1923
    Single-party period 1923–1930 1930–1945
    Multi-party period 1945–present
    By topic
    • Ancient Anatolians
    • Migration of Turks into Anatolia
    • Constitutional history
    • Economic history
    • Military history
    • Cultural history
    Turkey portal
    • v
    • t
    • e

    The states that are called Neo-Hittite, or more recently Syro-Hittite, or Aramean (after the Arameans and the Aramaic language), were Luwian, Aramaic and Phoenician-speaking political entities of the Iron Age in northern Syria and southern Anatolia that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and which lasted until roughly 700 BC. The term "Neo-Hittite" is sometimes reserved specifically for the Luwian-speaking principalities like Milid and Carchemish, although in a wider sense the broader cultural term "Syro-Hittite" is now applied to all the entities that arose in south-central Anatolia following the Hittite collapse—such as Tabal and Quwê—as well as those of northern and coastal Syria.

    • 1 Late Bronze Age-Early Iron Age transition
    • 2 List of Syro-Hittite states
    • 3 Inscriptions
    • 4 See also
    • 5 Notes
    • 6 External links

    Late Bronze Age-Early Iron Age transition Further information: Bronze Age collapseThe vast Hittite empire at its maximum expansion in the lands of central Anatolia

    The collapse of the Hittite Empire is usually associated with the gradual decline of Eastern Mediterranean trade networks and the resulting collapse of major Late Bronze Age cities in the Levantine coast, Anatolia and the Aegean. In the middle of the 13th century BC, great groups of Greeks speaking ancient Dorian dialects moved from the north through the Balkan region to the south. The Thracians who occupied this region, and northern Greece, were forced to move to the western coasts, and later to the inland of Anatolia, where they became known as Phrygians and Mysians. At the end of the 13th century BC, the Mycenean palaces in inland Greece were destroyed by invaders and almost simultaneously sea-raiders devastated the palace at Pylos. A few decades later, at the beginning of the 12th century BC, Homeric Troy was destroyed and the Hittite Empire suffered a sudden devastating attack from the Kaskas, who occupied the coasts around the Black Sea, and who were joined with the Mysians. They proceeded to destroy almost all Hittite sites but they were finally defeated by the Assyrians beyond the southern borders near Tigris These great population movements in the Eastern-Meditterannean are documented in the records of Ramesses III (1186–1155 BCE) as an invasion by the so-called sea peoples. Mentioned as being among them are the people of Adana (Dnnym or Danuna) in Cilicia and probably the Troyans. Hatti, Arzawa (Lydia), Alashiya (Cyprus), Ugarit and Alalakh were destroyed. The invaders were defeated near the borders of Egypt.

    It seems that the sea-peoples contributed to the collapse of the Empire, although they are only mentioned in the Egyptian records and the archaeological evidence is insufficient. Their invasion caused the movement, by both land and sea, of large populations seeking new land to settle. In fact, it is recorded that the foreign countries made a conspiracy in their islands and that no land could stand before their arms. The Hittites were strong enough to survive the first stream of emigrations, but they didn''t escape the second, where they were surrounded by enemies. The Caska were a continuous trouble, the borders with Arzawa were never considered safe, Mitanni to the south was always an enemy and a few decades earlier the Hittites suffered a great defeat against the Assyrians beyond the borders.

    Hattusa, the Hittite capital, was completely destroyed. Following this collapse of large cities and the Hittite state, the Early Iron Age in northern Mesopotamia saw a dispersal of settlements and ruralization, with the appearance of large numbers of hamlets, villages, and farmsteads. Syro–Hittite states emerged in the process of such major landscape transformation, in the form of regional states with new political structures and cultural affiliations. David Hawkins was able to trace a dynastic link between the Hittite imperial dynasty and the "Great Kings" and "Country-lords" of Melid and Karkamish of the Early Iron Age, proving an uninterrupted continuity between the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age at those sites.

    Aside from literary evidence from inscriptions, the uninterrupted cultural continuity in the region of Neo-Hittite states from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age is now further confirmed by the recent archaeological work at the sites of Aleppo (Temple of the Storm God on the Citadel) and Ain Dara (Temple of Ishtar-Shawushka), where temples built in the Late Bronze Age continue into the Iron Age without hiatus, and those temples witness multiple rebuildings in the Early Iron Age.

    List of Syro-Hittite statesHistorical map of the Neo-Hittite states, c. 800 BCE. Borders are approximate only.

    The Syro–Hittite states may be divided into two groups: a northern group where Hittite rulers remained in power, and a southern group where Aramaeans came to rule from about 1000 BC. Although these states are considered somewhat unified, they were thought to actually be disunified, even in separate kingdoms.

    The northern group includes:

    • Tabal. It may have included a group of city states called the Tyanitis (Tuwana, Tunna, Hupisna, Shinukhtu, Ishtunda)
    • Kammanu (with Melid)
    • Hilakku
    • Quwê (with a stronghold at modern Karatepe)
    • Gurgum
    • Kummuh
    • Carchemish

    The southern, Aramaic, group includes:

    • Palistin (cpital was probably Tell Tayinat)
    • Bit Gabbari (with Sam''al)
    • Bit-Adini (with the city of Til Barsip)
    • Bit Bahiani (with Guzana)
    • Pattin (also Pattina or Unqi) (with the city of Kinalua, maybe modern Tell Tayinat)
    • Ain Dara, a religious center
    • Bit Agusi (with the cities of Arpad, Nampigi, and (later on) Aleppo)
    • Hatarikka-Luhuti (the capital city of which was at Hatarikka)
    • Hamath

    Luwian monumental inscriptions in Anatolian hieroglyphs continue uninterrupted from the 13th-century Hittite imperial monuments to the Early Iron Age Syro-Hittite inscriptions of Karkamish, Melid, Aleppo and elsewhere. Luwian hieroglyphs was chosen by many of the Syro-Hittite regional kingdoms for their monumental inscriptions, which often appear in bi or tri-lingual inscriptions with Aramaic, Phoenician or Akkadian versions. The Early Iron Age in Northern Mesopotamia also saw a gradual spread of alphabetic writing in Aramaic and Phoenician. During the cultural interactions on the Levantine coast of Syro-Palestine and North Syria in the tenth through 8th centuries BCE, Greeks and Phrygians adopted the alphabetic writing from the Phoenicians.

    Tags:Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Ak Koyunlu, Akkadian, Aleppo, Alexander the Great, Anatolia, Anatolian, Aramaic, Armenian, Assyria, Balkan, Bithynia, Bronze Age, Byzantine, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Cappadocia, Caria, Cilicia, Classical, Cyprus, Dara, Edessa, Egypt, Egyptian, Galatia, Greece, Hittite, Hittites, Ilkhanate, Ionia, Kara Koyunlu, Lycia, Lydia, Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, Neo-Hittite, Ottoman, Ottoman Empire, Palaeolithic, Palestine, Phrygia, Prehistory, Rashidun, Roman, Sam, Sassanian, Seleucid, Seljuk, Syria, Syro-Hittite states, Thrace, Tigris, Timeline, Trebizond, Troy, Turkey, Turks, Wikipedia

    See Also:Syro-Hittite states

    Add definition or comments on Neo-Hittite

    Your Name / Alias:
    Definition / Comments
    neutral points of view
    Source / SEO Backlink:
    Anti-Spam Check
    Enter text above
    Upon approval, your definition will be listed under: Neo-Hittite