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    * Port Moresby *

    پورت مورسبی


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    (Wikipedia) - Port Moresby Port Moresby Pot Mosbi Country Division Established Government  • Governor Area  • Total Elevation Population (2011 census)  • Total  • Density Languages  • Main languages Time zone Postal code Website
    Downtown Port Moresby
    Flag
    Port MoresbyLocation within Papua New Guinea
    Coordinates: 9°30′49.1″S 147°13′7.7″E / 9.513639°S 147.218806°E / -9.513639; 147.218806
     Papua New Guinea
    National Capital District
    1873
    Powes Parkop (2007-)
    240 km2 (90 sq mi)
    35 m (115 ft)
    364,125
    1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
    Motu, Tok Pisin, English
    AEST (UTC+10)
    111
    www.ncdc.gov.pg

    Port Moresby (/ˌpɔərt ˈmɔərzbi/; Tok Pisin: Pot Mosbi) is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It is located on the shores of the Gulf of Papua, on the southeastern coast of the Papuan Peninsula of the island of New Guinea. The city emerged as a trade centre in second half of the 19th century. During World War II it was a prime objective for conquest by the Imperial Japanese forces during 1942–43 as a staging point and air base to cut off Australia from Southeast Asia and the Americas.

    In 2000 it had a population of 254,158. As of 2011 it has a population of 364,145, giving it an annual growth rate of 2.1% over a nine-year period. The place where the city was founded has been inhabited by the Motu-Koitabu people for centuries. The first European to see it was Captain John Moresby in 1873. It was named in honour of his father, Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby.

    According to a survey of world cities by the Intelligence Unit of The Economist, Port Moresby is one of the world''s least livable cities (ranked 139 of 140 cities rated).

    Although Port Moresby is surrounded by Central Province, of which it is also the capital, it is not part of that province, but forms the National Capital District.

    Contents
    • 1 History
      • 1.1 Before colonisation
      • 1.2 Colonisation
      • 1.3 World War II and after
      • 1.4 Independence
    • 2 Climate
    • 3 Regions and suburbs
    • 4 Transport
    • 5 Economy
    • 6 Twin towns
    • 7 References
    • 8 Further reading
    • 9 External links

    HistoryA Hiri expedition arriving in Port Moresby in the 1990sBefore colonisation

    The Motuan people of the area now known as Port Moresby traded their pots for sago, other food and canoe logs, sailing from Hanuabada and other villages built on stilts above the waters of the bay. Their language, Motu, was the basis of Hiri Motu, an official language of Papua New Guinea though it has been steadily in decline since the 1960s when Tok Pisin, till then confined to the northern side of the former border between Papua, British New Guinea until 1905, and New Guinea, that was German New Guinea until 1914.

    The Hiri expeditions were large-scale. As many as 20 multi-hulled canoes or lakatoi, crewed by some 600 men, carried about 20,000 clay pots on each journey. To the Motuans, not only was the Hiri an economic enterprise but it also confirmed their tribal identity through its long and dangerous voyages.

    Queensland raises the British flag at Port Moresby 1883ColonisationGovernment House, Port Moresby, beginning of 20th century.

    There was already an important trade centre on the site of Port Moresby when the English Captain John Moresby of HMS Basilisk first visited it. He sailed through the Coral Sea at the eastern end of New Guinea, saw three previously unknown islands, and landed there. At 10 a.m. on 20 February 1873, he claimed the land for Britain and named it after his father, Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. He called the inner reach "Fairfax Harbour" and the other Port Moresby.

    Port Moresby Harbour with floating and sunk ships described by Margaret Mead in 1929

    No Europeans settled there until ten years later, when the southeastern part of New Guinea was annexed to the British Empire by the Colony of Queensland. Administration of British New Guinea was transferred to the newly established Commonwealth of Australia in 1906, the federation of the colonies on Australia and Tasmania having occurred 1 January 1901, though only to administer it: Australia did not accept the sovereignty granted to the dominions of the British Empire by the Statute of Westminster 1931 until the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 and British New Guinea therefore did not become a colony of the federated colony of Australia. Australia did, however, rename it as known as Papua. From then until 1941 Port Moresby grew slowly. The main growth was on the peninsula, where port facilities and other services were gradually improved. The first butcher''s shop and grocery opened in 1909, electricity was introduced in 1925, and piped water supply provided in 1941.

    World War II and afterPort Moresby Post Office still standing in 2013 with office buildings behind which once contained restaurants but no longerDouglas Street Port Moresby; Old hotel lot still vacant after 30 years and new building behind it

    During World War II, some Papuan men enlisted in the Papua Infantry Battalion, and others as carriers over trails and rough terrains (porters) as supply support to Allied and Japanese armies during long jungle marches. The biographer of General Douglas MacArthur, historian William Manchester, makes it plain in his biography of the General, American Caesar, that acting as porters was well down the natives'' list of acceptable voluntary activities and that they would fade away without great inducements. Many Papuan residents of Port Moresby either returned to their family villages or were evacuated to camps when the threat of Japanese invasion loomed. The city became, by September 1942, home to an important Allied complex of bases and thousands of troops were eventually stationed in the area or more often, staged through it, as it was the last allied bastion on the island and conversely, a key staging and jumping off point as the Allies began conducting offensive warfare themselves, pushing back the Japanese advances.

    In 1945, the Territory of Papua and New Guinea was formed when Papua and the former German New Guinea, which had been administered by Australia since 1918, were amalgamated under a single Australian administration though several laws remained in two territories and remain so, which can be complicating with provinces sitting on two sides of the otherwise extinct boundary. Port Moresby became the capital of the new combined territory and a focal point for the expansion of public services.

    • The longstanding downtown United Church with next door office building in 2013 were replaced with one building, the church on the ground floor

    • Looking past Pacific Place showing building beneath it which will block the view of the harbour from the street

    • Port Moresby''s Roman Catholic cathedral remains downtown though parishioners largely come from elsewhere in the city

    • The current Anglican cathedral replaces the building dating back to the first part of the 20th century

    • The long ceased to do business Burns Philp department store, in the mid-90s having been used as a private school building

    • Office and apartment tower on Ela Beach at the bottom of Musgrave Street

    IndependenceFront side of the parliament building

    In September 1975, Papua New Guinea became an independent country with Port Moresby as its capital city. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, represented the Queen of Papua New Guinea at the celebrations. New government, intellectual and cultural buildings were constructed in the suburb of Waigani to supplement and replace those of downtown Port Moresby. They included those for government departments, including a National Parliament Building, which was opened in 1984 by Prince Charles and blends traditional design with modern building technology. The PNG National Museum and National Library are also located at Waigani. A mansion was built in Port Moresby just west of the old legislative building but the last pre-independence chief minister and first prime minister of the sovereign state declared it not nearly grand enough; it was made the residence of Australian high commissioners and a mansion suitable to Somare''s demands was built in Waigani.

    • National library and archives in Waigani in 2013

    • Pineapple Building being restored in 2013 after many years of being abandoned

    • Old courthouse in downtown Port Moresby still bearing its original sign

    • PNG National Court building in Waigani, in 2013 with substantial repair and enlargement with additional wing

    Several of the government buildings have now been abandoned due to long-term neglect. Chief amongst these are Marea Haus (known to most locals as the "Pineapple Building") and the Central Government Offices. Nearby buildings, such as Morauta Haus and Vulupindi Haus, are now starting to show significant signs of decay due to a lack of maintenance. However, widespread restoration rather than demolition of long-disused office buildings has been highly active since the first decade of the 21st century. The legislative building before independence and the first parliament building is long-gone but the old court house in town Port Moresby remains, indeed still bearing its pre-independence label with its previous title.

    The population of the Port Moresby area expanded rapidly after independence. In 1980 the census registered 120,000; by 1990, this had increased to 195,000.

    Climate

    Port Moresby has a tropical wet and dry climate with relatively constant temperatures throughout the year. The wet season starts in December and ends in May; the dry season covers the remaining six months. Port Moresby''s average yearly rainfall is just over 1,000 mm (39.4 in). Average daily high temperatures range from 28 to 32 °C (82 to 90 °F) depending on time of year, while the average low temperature shows very little seasonal variation, hovering around the 26 °C (79 °F) mark. It tends to be slightly cooler in the city during the dry season.

    Climate data for Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches)
    37 (99) 36 (97) 36 (97) 36 (97) 34 (93) 33 (91) 32 (90) 32 (90) 34 (93) 34 (93) 36 (97) 36 (97) 37 (99)
    32 (90) 31 (88) 31 (88) 31 (88) 30 (86) 29 (84) 28 (82) 28 (82) 29 (84) 30 (86) 31 (88) 32 (90) 30 (86)
    26 (79) 26 (79) 26 (79) 26 (79) 26 (79) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 26 (79) 26 (79) 26 (79) 26 (79)
    23 (73) 23 (73) 23 (73) 22 (72) 22 (72) 22 (72) 20 (68) 20 (68) 21 (70) 21 (70) 22 (72) 23 (73) 20 (68)
    178 (7.01) 193 (7.6) 170 (6.69) 107 (4.21) 64 (2.52) 33 (1.3) 28 (1.1) 18 (0.71) 25 (0.98) 36 (1.42) 48 (1.89) 112 (4.41) 1,012 (39.84)
    Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT003090
    Regions and suburbs Main article: List of Port Moresby suburbsUrban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the Circles of Sustainability method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme
    • Walter Bay from hills immediately east of downtown Port Moresby

    • Koki neighbourhood

    • Ela Beach

    Port Moresby refers to both the urbanised area of the National Capital District and more specifically to the main business area, known locally as "Town". Since the 1990s the original town centre has ceased to have restaurants and night life, though it is very successful and prosperous looking as an office centre; the affluent housing region north of downtown along and up from the coach remains so, though there are now few modest residential houses, most of which are replaced with substantial mansions and apartment buildings. The suburb of Boroko, once the commercial heart of Port Moresby, is currently very idle, with many former shopping buildings now simply empty; to the west of there, however, is full of high rises, shopping centres and affluent housing. Other neighbourhoods of Port Moresby include: Koki, with its popular fresh produce market, Newtown, Konedobu, Kaevaga, Badili, Gabutu, Kila Kila, Matirogo, Three Mile, Kaugere, Sabama, Korobosea, Four Mile, Hohola, Hohola North, Boroko, once a major shopping area, Gordons, Gordons North, Erima, Saraga, Waigani, Morata and Gerehu. There are also villages like Hanuabada, the largest village in Papua New Guinea. All parts of Port Moresby have serious security problems with violent attacks by criminals, causing fences and walls to be considered necessary around houses and apartment buildings and security guards to be widely employed. The UN Global Compact Cities Programme, using a method called Circles of Sustainability has assessed the urban security of Port Moresby as ''critical''.

    TransportJacksons International Airport airstrip looking east across airstrip 2013

    Port Moresby is served within the city by buses and privately owned taxis. Flights are vital for transport about the country, highways not being widely available. Port Moresby is served by Jacksons International Airport, the biggest international airport and Papua New Guinea Defence Force Air Wing base in the country. Air Niugini and Airlines PNG both conduct regular domestic and international services from the airport, while Virgin Australia flies to Brisbane. Jacksons has international flights to Brisbane, Cairns, Cebu, Sydney, Honiara, Nadi, Manila, Singapore, Hong Kong and Tokyo.

    As the national highway system is not fully linked, there are many internal flights to other towns, e.g. Madang, which cannot be reached by ground transport, such as minibuses, known locally as PMVs (Public Motor Vehicles).

    EconomyPort Moresby, seen from the International Space Station
    This section requires expansion. (September 2012)

    Airlines PNG has its head office on the grounds of Jacksons International Airport in Port Moresby. In recent years Port Moresby has been economically booming. There has been substantial building of housing, office towers and commercial establishments over much of it, apart from the once significant but currently vastly depressed Boroko.

    Twin towns
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