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    * Yavuz Sultan Salim *

    سلطان یاوز سلیم ، سليم اوّل

    Ottoman king Yavuz Sultan Selim; (Oct, 10, 1467- Sep, 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. He was also the first Ottoman Sultan to assume the title of Caliph of Islam.Sultan Selim carried the empire to the leadership of the Sunni branch of Islam by his conquest of the Middle East. He represented a sudden change in the expansion policy of the empire, which was working mostly against the West and the Beyliks before his reign. On the eve of his death in 1520, the Ottoman empire spanned almost 1 billion acres Born in Amasya, Selim dethroned his father Beyazit II (1481–1512) in 1512. Bayezid's death followed immediately thereafter. Like his grandfather Mehmet II (1451–81), Selim put his brothers and nephews to death upon his accession in order to eliminate potential pretenders to the throne. This fratricidal policy was motivated by bouts of civil strife that had been sparked by the antagonism between Selim's father Beyazit and his uncle Jam, and between Selim himself and his brother Ahmet.He married Valideh Sultan (1520) Hafsa Khatun Sultan, who died in 1534, mother of Soleyman I. Selim's mother was Aysheh Khatun. Selim was described as being tall, having very broad shoulders and a long mustache. He was skilled in politics and was said to be fond of fighting.For Selim, one of the first challenges as Sultan was the conflict between his empire and the powerful Safavid Empire of Persia. Shah Ismail had a Kurdish and Azeri ancestry and was patron of Shiite Islam in the region, a situation which was a threat against the Sunni rulers of the Ottoman Empire. Selim had to eliminate the risk of a westward attack from Iran to Anatolia while he was attacking the Mamluks of Egypt. Therefore, Selim assembled his army and marched to Iran in 1514 and delivered a devastating blow to Safavid and Shah Ismail at the Battle of Chaldoran, a battle of historical significance. The Ottoman army thereafter paraded in Tabriz.Then, Selim attacked and destroyed the Mamluk Sultanate first at the Battle of Marj Dabiq and then at the Battle of Ridanieh, which led to the annexation of Syria, Palestine and Egypt. He also extended Ottoman power to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. After the conquest of Egypt and the Holy Cities in 1517, Selim induced Caliph Motevakkel III (1509-17), the last in the line of Abbasid caliphs who resided in Cairo since 1261 as nominal rulers legitimizing the de facto rule of the Mamluk sultans over the Mamluk Sultanate, to formally surrender the title of Caliph and its emblems, the sword and the mantle of Muhammad. These are kept in the Topkapi Palace Museum at Istanbul, Turkey.After his return from Egypt, Selim began to prepare for an expedition which is believed to be against Rhodes. This campaign was cut short when he was overwhelmed by sickness and subsequently died in the ninth year of his

    Tags:Abbasid, Amasya, Anatolia, Azeri, Battle of Chaldoran, Beyazit, Cairo, Chaldoran, Egypt, Iran, Islam, Istanbul, Khatun, Kurdish, Mamluk, Marj, Mecca, Medina, Middle East, Motevakkel, Ottoman, Ottoman Empire, Palestine, Persia, Rhodes, Safavid, Shah, Shah Ismail, Shiite, Sultan, Sunni, Syria, Tabriz, Turkey, Yavuz Sultan Salim

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