The Iranian History 1578 AD


Ottomans Invade Iranian Territory

Apr, 5, 1578 AD

Isfahan beautiful Chaharbagh gardensAfter 23 years of peace, the Ottoman army entered Kafkas area and in multiple battles captured around 590,000 km.sq of the Iranian territory. Tbilisi fell on Aug, 24 and Shirvan was conquered on Sep, 9. The war continued until Daghestan was seized on Aug, 15, 1583 by the invading army. The chain of disasters did not seem to come to an end for the Iranians when on Sep, 22, 1585 Tabriz was occupied by Ottoman army. After 12 years of war, on March, 21, 1590 an agreement was made in Istanbul that ended the war with great losses for the Safavi Empire. The peace between two nations lasted for 13.5 years. (Updated: Aug, 23, 2008)

Ottomans Capture Caucasia

Aug, 9, 1578 AD

Radkan Tower in Chenaran / Khorasan Razavi provinceThe peace between the Ottoman Empire and Persian Empire after the treaty of Amasya continued from 1555 to 1578. When Sultan Murat III of the Ottoman Empire ascended to throne in 1574, As a gesture of goodwill, Shah Tahmasp 1 of Persia sent presents to Murat III. But before the Persian delegation left Istanbul, the Ottoman capital, Tahmasp died (1576). The new shah was Ismail 2. who changed the peaceful policy towards Ottomans and began hostilities in the border area. Meanwhile the governor of Lorestan, a part of Persia took refuge in Ottoman lands which further created tension between the two empires. Shah Ismail 2. soon died and during the chaos following his death, Ottoman Porte decided to invade the Iranian territory after 23 years of peace.
In April 1578, The Ottoman army invaded Caucasia and in multiple battles captured around 590,000 km.sq of the Iranian territory. The main confrontation between the two armies was around a small fort named Childir in North east Anatolia. The commander of the Ottoman army was Lala Mustafa Pasha and the commander of the Persian army was Tokmak Khan who had represented Persia in Istanbul after Murat III’s accession. He also had a Georgian army under his command. (Georgia was the vassal of Persian Empire and there was a family bond by marriage between the royal families of Persians and Georgians.) Tokmak Khan tried to encircle the Ottoman army and he was about to succeed when Ozdemiroglu Osman Pasha of Ottoman side intervened and defeated Tokmak Khan.
Although Persians tried to attack Ottoman supply units after the battle, they were forced to retreat and when a bridge was wrecked during this retreat they further lost troops. These defeats left Caucasus to Ottoman conquest. Lala Mustafa Pasha soon conquered Tbilisi, the Georgian capital. The next step was the conquest of Darband (present Republic of Daghestan in Russia). By this conquest Ottomans were able to reach the Caspian Sea.
The war continued until the Peace Treaty of Istanbul in 1590. (Updated: Sep, 5, 2011)

English-Persian Glossary
  • Shah Tahmasp : شاه تهماسب(Shah Tahmasb) شاه طهماسب يکم Media_Files
  • Osman Pasha : عثمان پاشا
  • Caspian Sea : درياي کاسپين Media_Files
  • Shah Ismail : شاه اسماعيل(Shah Esmael Safavi) شاه اسماعيل ختايي Media_Files
  • Daghestan : داغستان(Dagestan, Daghistan)
  • Istanbul : استانبول(Islambul) Media_Files
  • Lorestan : لرستان Media_Files
  • Caucasia : قفقاز(Kafkas,Kafkasia)
  • Caucasus : قفقاز
  • Anatolia : آناتولي(Asia Minor,Anadolu,Turkey) ترکيه،آناتولي Media_Files
  • Tahmasp : تهماسپ(Tahmasb) طهماسب
  • Shirvan : شيروان(Shervan,Sherwan) شروان Media_Files
  • Ottoman : عثماني(Osmani) Media_Files
  • Tbilisi : تبليس(Tiflis,Teflis) تفليس
  • Childir : چيلدير
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Georgia : گرجستان Media_Files
  • Darband : دربند Media_Files
  • Caspian : کاسپين(Caspian Sea, Mazandaran, Khazar Sea) بحر خزر، درياي مازندران Media_Files
  • Persia : ايران Media_Files
  • Amasya : آماسيا
  • Russia : روسيه Media_Files
  • Sultan : سلطان(Soltan) Media_Files
  • Tabriz : تبريز(Tebriz) Media_Files
  • Safavi : صفوي Media_Files
  • Khan : خان Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files

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