The Iranian History 1723 AD


Mir Mahmoud Forces Defeated In Qazvin

Apr, 12, 1723 AD

Shah Abbas Caravansaray AharAfter the fall of the Safavi dynasty and capture of capital Isfahan, crown prince Tahmasp Mirza fled to Qazvin and proclaimed king with crown name Shah Tahmasp 2. Amir Mahmoud of Kandahar who had imprisoned most of the royal family, sent his army to suppress the uprising. His army was trapped in Qazvin and about 2000 troops were killed. Upon hearing the news of his defeat, Amir Mahmoud ordered execution of most of the Safavi family in revenge.
Tahmasp Mirza, just like his father Sultan Hossein made some wrong political decisions including agreements that gave concessions to Russians and Ottomans so that they'd recognize his kingdom in return. Tahmasp was deposed when Nader shah ascended the throne. Nader created a powerful army that took back most of Iran's territory from invaders and entered a glorious era under Afshar dynasty for a short period of time. (Updated: Apr, 13, 2008)

Russians Capture Baku

Jun, 26, 1723 AD

Jamalabad Caravansaray in Miyaneh, one of several building during Shah Abbas Safavi that aimed to promote trade and transport safetyIn the midst of a civil war in Iran and circumstances that led to fall of the Safavi dynasty, Russian troops took advantage of the situation and captured the city of Baku. Meanwhile most Iranian territories became the stage of chaos and human tragedies that followed the capture of capital Isfahan by the forces of Amir Mahmoud of Kandahar. Despite civilian resistance, Baku stayed under Russian occupation for seven years when Iranians under Nader Shah regained national unity. In March, 10, 1735 an accord was made in Ganjeh between Iran and Russia that led to Russians total withdrawal from Transcaucasia. For the next seventy years, Russians did not dare set foot on Iranian soil until first Iran-Russia wars (1808-1813). Baku used to be an important part of Persian empire with Zoroastrian fire altars that date back to 8th century B.C. (Updated: Mar, 14, 2008)

Iran Surrenders Gilan And Mazandaran

Sep, 12, 1723 AD

1897 photo of Afshar era Blue Mosque of Erivan/Armenia: Built by Nader 1736. In the latter half of the 1990s the mosque underwent a heavy restoration, funded by Iran. Blue Mosque is the only active mosque operating in Yerevan.In the midst of a turmoil that started with invasion of Hotaki warlords into Iran, Isfahan, the Safavid capital fell on Oct, 12, 1722. Meanwhile, Russians and Ottomans used the opportunity to invade Caucasia.
On August 23, 1722 the Russian army captured strategic city of Derbent. With little or no resistence, in Dec, 1722 the Russian army and navy, under major general Mikhail Matyushkin, seized Rasht, and on July, 26 1723 Russians captured Baku while Ottomans captured Hamedan on Aug, 31st.
Under these unfavorable conditions, Shah Tahmasp 2nd, the king without a capital surrendered Derbent, Baku, and the Persian provinces of Shirvan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astarabad to the Russians on September 12, 1723.
In this manner, Russians reached their long-time ambition to rule exclusively over all areas around the Caspian Sea. The two powerful Ottoman and Russian Empires practically divided Iran between themselves in 1724.
It was not until 1727, when Nader Gholi Khan from the Afshar tribe, a gallant Iranian warlord started his unbelievable campaign to liberate Iran from foreign invaders. Liberation of Mashhad on Nov, 29, 1727 was a key turning point in the course of the Iranian history.
Although he tried to restore Shah Tahmasp to the throne and bring back the Safavid Empire to life, it took more than a puppet king to earn back Iran's overall sovereignty.
By the time Nader Shah Afshar ascended the throne and established the Afshar Dynasty in 1736, most of Iran's lost territory had already rejoined the motherland. (Updated: Oct, 27, 2011)

English-Persian Glossary
  • Transcaucasia : قفقاز جنوبي
  • Shah Tahmasp : شاه تهماسب(Shah Tahmasb) شاه طهماسب يکم Media_Files
  • Caspian Sea : درياي کاسپين Media_Files
  • Zoroastrian : زرتشتي Media_Files
  • Gholi Khan : قلي خان Media_Files
  • Nader Shah : نادر شاه(Naderkuli, Nadergholi) نادرقلي افشار Media_Files
  • Mazandaran : مازندران(Tabarestan) طبرستان، تپورستان Media_Files
  • Astarabad : استراباد(Astrabad) استرآباد
  • Caucasia : قفقاز(Kafkas,Kafkasia)
  • Kandahar : قندهار
  • Tahmasp : تهماسپ(Tahmasb) طهماسب
  • Shirvan : شيروان(Shervan,Sherwan) شروان Media_Files
  • Ottoman : عثماني(Osmani) Media_Files
  • Mashhad : مشهد(Mashad) Media_Files
  • Derbent : دربنت Media_Files
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Dynasty : دودمان ال، خاندان پادشاهان، سلسله Media_Files
  • Caspian : کاسپين(Caspian Sea, Mazandaran, Khazar Sea) بحر خزر، درياي مازندران Media_Files
  • Isfahan : اصفهان(Esfahan, Sepahan,Esparan) اسپه دانه، اسپهان Media_Files
  • Hamedan : همدان(Ecbatana,Hamadan) هکمتانه Media_Files
  • Russian : روسي Media_Files
  • Safavid : صفوي Media_Files
  • Hotaki : هتاکي Media_Files
  • Russia : روسيه Media_Files
  • Sultan : سلطان(Soltan) Media_Files
  • Afshar : افشار(Avshar,Afshar Tribe) Media_Files
  • Qazvin : قزوين(Ghazvin, Caspian) کاسپين Media_Files
  • Safavi : صفوي Media_Files
  • Ganjeh : گنجه(Ganja) Media_Files
  • Gilan : گيلان Media_Files
  • Gholi : قلي(Qoli)
  • Rasht : رشت Media_Files
  • Mirza : ميرزا Media_Files
  • Baku : باکو(Bad Koobeh,Bakukh,Bakuyah) باد-کوبه Media_Files
  • Khan : خان Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files
  • Mir : مير Media_Files

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