The Iranian History 1834 AD


Fathali Shah Dies

Oct, 23, 1834 AD

A person descends from his horse to show his allegiance to Fathali Shah : From the book ShahanshahnamehFathali Shah was the nephew of Agha Mohammad Khan who ascended the throne on June, 17, 1797 after his uncle was murdered. His reign marked great territorial losses for Persia. Although he was praised for his vigorousness and intelligence by foreign diplomats, in their private notes, they described him as lazy and greedy.
Fathali Shah of Qajar dynasty who reigned in Iran for more than 36 years died in Isfahan. He was born in Damghan in 1771. After his uncle eunuch Mohammad Khan died, he became king. His real name was Khan Baba but he chose Fathali Shah as his crown name. The most dramatic event during his reign was separation of Transcaucasia (Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) from Iran after wars lost to Russians. His son, Abbas Mirza was nominated as crown prince and his successor though he died before his father and thus Mohammad Shah became the next Qajar king.
As the Iranian army was technologically inferior against the imperial Russia, Fathali Shah sought help from other European countries. He signed a military agreement with Britain who refused to help claiming that the military agreement did not concern a Russian attack. Britain just followed her change of priorities in the war against Napoleon. Then Fathali Shah sent a diplomat to sign the Treaty of Finckenstein with France. Only later to see that the French made peace with Russia and turned their back on Iran. In the end, Iran had to settle for the best accommodation that could be made with Russia. An alternative with little or no benefit for Iranians that was hidden from the public for a long time.
Fathali Shah's heritage included 158 wives and 260 children. He thus gave way to a corrupt royal court sunk in lust and avarice. His spent much time and effort on ceremonial regalia, large-scale oil paintings and a phony court culture with rigid etiquette that negatively affected the Iranian culture to the extent of total degeneration. He employed writers and painters to make a book called Shahanshahnameh about his wars with Russia.
Abbas Mirza, his Crown Prince died in 1833 and he named his grandson Mohammad Mirza as his successor. (Updated: Sep, 29, 2008)

Mohammad Shah's Coronation

Dec, 16, 1834 AD

Haji Mirza AghasiCrown prince Abbas Mirza had passed away one year before Fathali Shah's death on Oct, 1834. Mohammad Mirza who had entered Tehran in June was appointed crown prince and the governor of Azerbaijan. Mohammad Mirza went to Tabriz with his Vezir Ghaem Magham Farahani. As soon as the news of Shah's death arrived, Farahani blinded Mohammad Mirza's two brothers Jahangir Mirza and Khosrau Mirza in Ardebil prison and made preparations for Mohammad's coronation.
Mohammad Shah ascended the throne as the third Qajar king on Dec, 16, 1834. Farahani was appointed his Vezir again and started eliminating opposing voices. Having a wise Vezir, Mohammad Shah started reforming some institutions but the Qajar court was already contaminated with foreign and Harem influence, and rumors of a conspiracy made the Shah suspicious of his Vezir and who was soon strangled to death in Negarestan Garden.
Haji Mirza Aghasi's appointment as Vezir was a great disaster as he was very superstitious and wanted to govern the country by black magic. Nevertheless, he was able to keep the Shah satisfied. Mohammad Shah marches towards Herat in September, 1837. Backed by the British, Herat's governor Kamran Mirza decided to resist. The Iranian army captured the well fortified Ghurian Castle. The British first sent envoys to convince Mohammad Shah for peace. When they did not succeed, the British declared war on Iran and captured the Khark Island. It was not until Bushehr came under attack that the Shah found out that the Russians had betrayed him and made a deal with the British. He therefore had to lift the siege on Herat and return to Tehran.
During the rest of Mohammad Shah's rein, Iran was the scene of multiple revolts and uprising from every corner. Neither the Shah nor his incapable Vezir had the qualifications to rule the country. Mohammad Shah finally died of gout disease after 14 years of reign at the age of 42. He was succeeded by Naseroddin Shah. (Updated: May, 31, 2009)

Iran Purchases Coinage Machine

Dec, 25, 1834 AD

Iranian Qajar Girl Sahebgharaniye PalaceIran used to have first uniform gold coins in the world since Dariush I and thus Iranians were the first nation to have a monetary policy, but during the Qajar reign with infiltration of the royal family by foreign missionaries Iran became more and more dependent on the foreign countries.
During the reign of Fathali Shah (1797-1834) the first steps toward a modern currency were taken. In Tabriz and Isfahan mints well-executed silver and gold coins were struck along with the normal, less carefully minted products, with full, even pressure and neat edges similar to those found on contemporary British Indian coins. It is unclear whether these coins were intended only for presentation or as prototypes for a technically superior circulating coinage,
On Dec, 25, 1834 a coinage machine was purchased from Brussels so that the money used in day-to-day transactions would have same shape and weight. It was the last year of Fathali Shah's reign.
During Naseroddin Shah's reign a more sophisticated machine was purchased from France in 1865 but it did not become operational until 12 years later under an Australian advisor named Pachan.
Fathali Shah died at the age of 68 in Isfahan in 1834. His body was buried in the city of Qom. He had several children but following his will, his grandson Mohammad Mirza succeeded him. He was the son of Abbas, the crown prince who had died before. (Updated: Mar, 24, 2008)

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