The Iranian History 1851 AD


Second Persian Newspaper Published

Jan, 8, 1851 AD

Inside the Kashan Feen Hamam (Persian Bath) Amirkabir's murder scene 2008Vaghaye Ettefaghiyeh(means Events Happening in Persian) was the name of the second Persian newspaper that was published by the order from Qajar grand Vezir Amirkabir. The first Persian newspaper was Kaghaz Akhbar (meaning Paper News in Persian). Amirkabir's purpose in foundation of this newspaper was to create grounds for radical changes in Iranian politics and economy. The newspaper with 12-14 pages survived for about 20 years, although its founder Amirkabir was murdered by Naseroddin Shah the following year.
There were different sections in the Vaghaye Ettefaghiyeh Newspaper. First pages covered official news related to the central government in Tehran, followed by news from provinces and later pages covered developments in Europe. Most of translations were done by Etemadossaltaneh, the Qajar court interpreter who later became the manager of the Vaghaye Ettefaghiyeh. In most issues of the newspaper, current market prices of necessities were published as a method of supervision or regulation by the government and in some issues surveys of new books were published.
But there were two setbacks related to the newspaper:
-First, the price of the newspaper was 10 Shahi which made it too expensive and not affordable for most people to buy.
-Second, it became a means of state propaganda: first pages of the newspaper were filled with flattering words about Naseroddin Shah, the dictator to the extent that even weather conditions seemed to be at Shah's command!
The history of published press in Iran has been full of ups and downs ever since, state control and censorship have always been a part of the history of the Iranian media including later developments such as radio, television and the internet. (Updated: Apr, 5, 2010)

Etemadoddoleh Becomes Vezir

Dec, 17, 1851 AD

Qajar king Naseroddin Shah in Uniform in his 50s.Naseroddin Shah liked photography and was photographed hundreds of times. He granted a series of concessionary rights to foreigners in return for large payments that went into his own pockets.Shortly after Qajar king Naseroddin Shah dismissed Amirkabir, he appointed Mirza Aghakhan Nouri as his new Vezir on Dec, 17, 1951. The new Vezir, with the given title Etemadoddoleh was indeed a British spy who conspired against the previous Vezir Amirkabir with the help of Shah's mother Mahdolia. Etemadoddoleh had obtained British citizenship and he had secured a written decree from Shah by which Naseroddin Shah had promised not to kill him under any circumstances. In less than a month, Amirkabir who had tried to cut off foreign influence from the royal court was murdered at the Feen Garden of Kashan on Jan, 10, 1952.
Probably the greatest achievement of Mirza Aghakhan Nouri was separation of Afghanistan from Iran and kindly handling it to the British. Near the end of 1852, he had already signed a deal according to which Iran revoked her claims to Herat. His term as grand Vezir of the Qajar court lasted for seven years; during this time, foreign influence increased dramatically within the Qajar administration. Many concessions were granted especially to Britain and Russia.
After he was retired, Mirza Aghakhan Nouri took trips to Varamin, Arak, Isfahan, and Yazd before settling in Qom where he died on March 15, 1865 at the age of 59. He was buried in Karbala, Iraq.
One of his sons named Hossein Gholi Khan with the given title Sadrossaltaneh became the first Iranian Ambassador to USA. His nick name became Haji Washington after he made headlines by sacrificing a lamb on the balcony of a luxurious hotel in New York. (Updated: Jan, 15, 2012)

Darolfonoon Inaugurated

Dec, 23, 1851 AD

The historical buiding of the Darolfonoon School founded by Amirkabir / Naserkhosro Street, Tehran  2009Amirkabir set the foundation for Darolfonoon school in Tehran. The opening ceremony however, took place after he was dismissed from duty as Vezir. Darolfonoon was a replacement for traditional Madrasa. It was an institutional model for a war academy where Iranians could also study medicine and foreign languages. The instructors at Darolfonoon were sent to Europe every once in a while to become aquainted with new technology.
Unfortunately, the first team of professors arrived in Tehran two days after Amirkabir was arrested and sent to exile in Kashan. The first seven instructors were all from Austria and naturally, the students were all children of rich people. Eighty years later, the old building was demolished and constructions for a new building started.
Infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineering, medicine, surgery, pharmacy, and chemistry were taught alongside French, natural sciences, mathematics, history, and geography. Gradually, English, Russian, painting and music were added.
With inauguration of the Tehran University on March, 15, 1936, Darolfonoon was turned into a high school. (Updated: Jun, 2, 2009)

English-Persian Glossary
  • Mirza Aghakhan Nouri : ميرزا آقاخان نوري(Etemadoddoleh)
  • Tehran University : دانشگاه تهران(University of Tehran) Media_Files
  • Etemadossaltaneh : اعتمادالسلطنه محمدحسن خان صنيع‌الدوله
  • Naseroddin Shah : ناصرالدين شاه(Nasseroddin Shah, Naseroldin Shah,Naser al-Din Shah Qajar) سلطان صاحبقران، شاه شهيد Media_Files
  • Haji Washington : حاجي واشنگتن Media_Files
  • Sadrossaltaneh : صدرالسلطنه(Hossein Gholi Khan Nouri,haji Washington) حسينقلي خان صدرالسلطنه،حاجي واشنگتن Media_Files
  • Etemadoddoleh : اعتمادالدوله
  • Kaghaz Akhbar : کاغذ اخبار
  • Darolfonoon : دارالفنون Media_Files
  • Afghanistan : افغانستان Media_Files
  • Feen Garden : باغ فين(Fin Garden and Hamam of Kashan) باغ و جمام فين کاشان
  • Gholi Khan : قلي خان Media_Files
  • Washington : واشنگتن Media_Files
  • Amirkabir : امير کبير(Atabak,Amir-e Nezam) ميرزا تقي خان فراهاني،اميرنظام،اتابک Media_Files
  • Mahdolia : مهدعليا Media_Files
  • New York : نيويورک Media_Files
  • Karbala : کربلا کربلاي معلي Media_Files
  • Varamin : ورامين
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Austria : اتريش اطريش Media_Files
  • Madrasa : مدرسه(Madresa,Madreseh,Madrasah) Media_Files
  • Isfahan : اصفهان(Esfahan, Sepahan,Esparan) اسپه دانه، اسپهان Media_Files
  • Britain : بريتانيا انگليس Media_Files
  • Russian : روسي Media_Files
  • British : انگليسي Media_Files
  • Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران Media_Files
  • Russia : روسيه Media_Files
  • Kashan : کاشان Media_Files
  • French : فرانسوي Media_Files
  • Second : دوم Media_Files
  • Qajar : قاجار(Ghajar) قجر Media_Files
  • Gholi : قلي(Qoli)
  • Shahi : شاهي Media_Files
  • Vezir : وزير(Vizier, Vezier, vizir, wazir) Media_Files
  • Mirza : ميرزا Media_Files
  • Herat : هرات(Areia) Media_Files
  • Yazd : يزد Media_Files
  • Iraq : عراق(Al Aragh) Media_Files
  • Khan : خان Media_Files
  • Haji : حاجي Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files
  • Arak : اراک Media_Files
  • Qom : قم(Ghom) Media_Files
  • USA : ايالات متحده امريکا(United States of America, US, U.S.A.) Media_Files

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