The Iranian History 1902 AD


Telegraph Line Connects India-Europe

Mar, 30, 1902 AD

Chief office of the Imperial Bank Persia Tehran, 1938Iran and Britain agreed on the terms of a contract that connected India to Europe by Telegraph lines. Drown into royal corruption, Iran had become totally dependent on Europe in terms of modern technology. Paul Reuter, a British Jew of German descent was the first person to make an agreement to develop Telegraph lines with Naseroddin Shah in 1888. By that time, Telegraph links had been established between Britain and the European continent through the English Channel. The project was delayed several times until Reuters death in 1899 which forced Iranians to look for an alternative.
The British had already taken control of most of Iran's key financial institutions. The infamous D'Arcy agreement had been signed only a year before that gave exclusive rights to Iranian petroleum reserves for 60 years in return for £10,000. In 1989, Reuters had also obtained a 60 year banking right from Naseroddin Shah; a concession from the government of Persia, the right to issue money notes as well as to act as the state bank in Iran. Originally known as The British Bank of the Middle East, The Imperial bank of Persia was established in 1889 with a royal charter from Queen Victoria, very unusual for an overseas bank at the time.
Regarded as a deplorable example of the corrupt Qajar selling their country, the Reuter Concession was promoted as an attempt by the government to promote economic growth. Iran had Joined the International Telegraph Union in 1869. The actual aim of the Concession was to build railways, but Iran did not get railways or access to modern industries until 1930s. (Updated: Mar, 31, 2009)

Ruhollah Khomeini Is Born

Sep, 25, 1902 AD

Qajar era : Imam Khomeini during his ChildhoodRuhollah Musavi Khomeini was born in the town of Khomein about 300 kilometers south of Tehran as the son and grandson of known clerics. Khomeini lost his father when he was still an infant. Educated in Arak then Qom, he became a distinguished religious scholar and started teaching in Feyziyeh. His work, published in 1941, was a factor in the assassination of Kasravi, a prominent historian. Khomeini launched a campaign against the Shah's regime in 1962 publicly denouncing him, attacked Shah's reforms known as the White Revolution for conflicting with Islamic values and issued a fatwa forbidding collaboration with his regime. He was arrested in the June riots of 1963, rearrested after anti-American agitation in 1964, then sent to exile in Iraq.
Khomeini became a charismatic figure who used the holy city of Najaf, an important Shiite center to launch a revolution to overthrow Mohammad Reza Shah. Militant followers recognized his charisma by calling him Imam Khomeini. In 1977, Khomeini issued a public fatwa deposing the Shah and abrogating the constitution.
He continued his campaign against Shah's regime by sending written and oral messages to Iranian nation. In Najaf Seminary, Khomeini taught political philosophy of Islamic government, Islamic Leadership and theology and trained many students.
Iran-Iraq relations were not good at the time, thus Khomeini found the support he needed to continue his campaign against Shah. After signing the Algiers Treaty in 1975, Iran-Iraq relations started to improve and as a result Khomeini was asked to leave Iraq in 1978. Although he had a visa to Kuwait, he was denied entry due to the fact that Shah was an influential person around the world. Khomeini's entrance to France came as a surprise to Shah. But the French president Giscard d'Estaing assured him that Khomeini was allowed to France as a tourist and was not engaging in political activities there. The truth was that in France he gained access to everything needed to overthrow the Pahlavi regime within a year and transform the Iranian Monarchy into a Theocracy in 1979. (Updated: Mar, 2, 2009)

English-Persian Glossary
  • Mohammad Reza Shah : محمدرضا شاه(Mohammadreza Shah) شاهنشاه،آريامهر،پهلوي Media_Files
  • Ruhollah Khomeini : روح‌اللّه مصطفوي موسوي خميني,
  • Giscard d'Estaing : ژيسکاردستن(Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry) والري ژيسكاردستن
  • D'Arcy Agreement : قرارداد دارسي Media_Files
  • White Revolution : القلاب سفيد Media_Files
  • Naseroddin Shah : ناصرالدين شاه(Nasseroddin Shah, Naseroldin Shah,Naser al-Din Shah Qajar) سلطان صاحبقران، شاه شهيد Media_Files
  • Imam Khomeini : امام خميني Media_Files
  • Middle East : خاورميانه
  • Reza Shah : رضا شاه(Sardar Sepah, Reza Gholdor) رضا خان Media_Files
  • Khomeini : خميني(Imam Khomeini) Media_Files
  • Monarchy : شهرياري سلط‌نت‌ مط‌لقه‌ ، رژيم‌ سلط‌نتي‌
  • American : آمريكائي‌ ينگه‌ دنيائي‌ Media_Files
  • Feyziyeh : فيضيه
  • Algiers : الجزيره Media_Files
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Reuters : رويترز
  • Islamic : اسلامي Media_Files
  • Britain : بريتانيا انگليس Media_Files
  • British : انگليسي Media_Files
  • Khomein : خمين Media_Files
  • Pahlavi : پهلوي(Pahlevi) Media_Files
  • Persia : ايران Media_Files
  • Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران Media_Files
  • French : فرانسوي Media_Files
  • Kuwait : کويت(Coup-Wait)
  • France : فرانسه(République française) Media_Files
  • Shiite : شيعه(Shia, Shi'a) Media_Files
  • German : آلماني Media_Files
  • Qajar : قاجار(Ghajar) قجر Media_Files
  • Najaf : نجف نجف اشرف Media_Files
  • India : هند هندوستان‌ Media_Files
  • Iraq : عراق(Al Aragh) Media_Files
  • Imam : امام(Emam) Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files
  • Arak : اراک Media_Files
  • Qom : قم(Ghom) Media_Files
  • Jew : يهودي کليمي، جهود Media_Files

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