Two handmade bombs were thrown at Mohammad Ali Shah's imperial coach. Some of the guards around the carriage were killed but the Shah escaped the assassination attempt unharmed. Shah was travelling from the Gulistan palace towards Doshan Tappeh residence in east Tehran. A day later, the governor of Tehran was summoned to the court and beaten severely. The minister of war who was appointed just a day earlier was physically punished and sent to prison. (Updated: Mar, 3, 2008)
Mohammad Reza Qavam also known as Qavamolmolk Shirazi was an influential nobleman opposing the Constitutional Revolution. He was a supporter of the ousted Mohammad Ali Shah and was summoned to Tehran by the Majlis. Qavamolmolk declared allegiance to Constitutional Monarchy and returned to Shiraz but he continued creating chaos with support from Sheikh Yusof, the Shiraz representative in the Parliament.
After he created obstacles for government representatives from travelling in Fars Province, opponents of Qavamolmolk staged a sit-in at the Shah Cheragh Mausoleum and called for help. When Seyyed Abdolhossein Lari came to their support with 70 musketeers, negotiations regarding a truce and restoring order took place with Qavamolmolk and parties involved. News regarding presence of guerilla forces from Lorestan in Shiraz reached Majlis on Oct, 16, 1907 reporting the number of armed forces to be 2,000 exceeding previously known 70 people. Shah supporters staged several attempts to kill Abdolhossein but they were not successful.
Shortly after the governor of Fars Nezamossaltaneh fled the province in panic towards Isfahan, Qavamolmolk adopted a more compromising tone but just when hopes of reaching a peaceful solution was expected, a man named Nematollah Boroujerdi who was a supporter of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution shot Qavamolmolk to death on March, 7, 1908. After shooting him with a pistol four times, the assassin shot himself and took his own life.
The assassination of Qavamolmolk led to more unrest and events that had a tragic effect on the history of the revolution leading to many other deaths. Supporters of the despot Qajar monarch used the occasion to wage savage attacks on civilians.
Major landowners like Qavamolmolk saw the Constitutional Revolution as an attempt to take away their privileges which was in fact true in essence because the idea was to create a system where every citizen regardless of their wealth or social stature was to be given the right to determine his/her own faith. This was taking place in an aristocracy where villages were traded with their inhabitants included.
In March 1908, Majlis appointed Zellolsoltan as the governor of Fars. Prince Masood Zellolsoltan entered Shiraz in splendid glory on May, 9, 1908. He ordered demolition of barricades and banned carrying firearms in order to restore order in the city.
The continuous struggle to limit powers of authorities have always failed in Iran mostly due to the fact that the despot usually assumes to retain his powers from God, rather than people.
Peace did not last long and on June, 23, 1908 the Majlis was bombarded by Russian Cossacks thus another era known as Minor Despotism began. (Updated: Feb, 24, 2013)
For the first time in Iran, drillings reached oil in the historical city of Masjed Soleyman. At about 360 meters underground, they struck oil. The oil sprouting nearly 16 meters above the equipment signaled a new era of modern time colonization of Iran. Drillings had begun in 1903 in different areas in southern Iran. An agreement signed by Mozaffaroddin Shah in May, 1901 gave exclusive drilling rights to William Knox D'Arcy for a period of 60 years.
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company, founded in April 1909 then constructed a pipeline to a refinery in Abadan in 1911. In 1951, the oil industry was nationalized and for a short time Iranians took control of their national wealth until a coup in 1953 after which, Mohammad Reza Shah gave concessions to the English and American oil cartels. (Updated: Jan, 1, 2010)
In the heat of the Constitutional Monarchy Movement, Mohammad Ali Shah hid himself at Bagheshah fortifications. Unfortunately, the treacherous Shah relied heavily on Russian Cossacks and put a Russian colonel in charge of Tehran's security, turning the city into a military garrison. Cossacks occupied state offices and dissidents were either killed, arrested or sent to exile.
The revolutionary forces bravely guarded the Baharestan area in order to protect the Majlis.
Russian colonel Liakhoff who was the commander of Persian Cossack Brigade gained considerable notoriety after shelling the Majlis and executing several leaders of the Constitutional Movement on June, 23, 1908. His forces then plundered the parliament and damaged the building. Mohammad Ali Shah honored him for his achievements.
Colonel Liakhoff served the Shah until July, 19, 1909 when he surrendered and was pardoned by the Constitutional leaders probably for the fear of a Russian attack after which he was sent back to Saint Petersburg. (Updated: Jun, 16, 2010)
Russian cannons bombard the national parliament of Iran. After the death of Mozaffaroddin Shah, his son Mohammad Ali Shah started showing teeth to supporters of Constitutional Monarchy Movement. But public uprisings and pressure from dissidents forced him to seek a safe haven at the Russian embassy. Kazak soldiers headed by colonel Liakhoff bombarded the parliament killing many representatives, reporters and dissidents. This event was the start of a period called the Minor Tyranny.
One year later, in July, 1909 the tables turned and the dissidents captured Tehran forcing the Shah to seek help from Russians again. He was escorted by Russian soldiers to Russia. One day after Mohammad Ali Shah left Iran his mother Ommolkhaleghan, a daughter of Amirkabir died on Sep, 30, 1909. Mohammad Ali Shah attempted a military attack to capture Tehran on July, 18, 1911 with the help of his brother Salaroddoleh, but he was defeated and consequently many of his relatives and supporters were dismissed from state duty. Mohammad Ali Shah spent the rest of his life in Europe and died in 1924 in Paris.
Foreign meddling in Iran's internal affairs reached a disgusting level during Qajar Dynasty forcing people to revolt. Qajar kings secured support from prominent clerics and proclaimed religious titles which indeed were fake, probably a foreign invention. (Updated: Jan, 1, 2010)
In a meeting against conditional monarchy (Mashrootiyat) that was held in Bagheshah where Mohammad Ali Shah, the Qajar king was residing. Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri orchestrated a campaign to gather signatures petitioning the shah to cancel Mashrootiyat. The shah willingly signed the order that later led to civil unrest in Gilan, Isfahan, and Azarbaijan. One year later, The Sheikh was charged with treason and hung on July, 31, 1909 to be the ayatollah executed in the modern history of Iran. (Updated: Dec, 12, 2007)
- Constitutional Revolution : انقلاب مشروطه
- Anglo-Persian Oil Company : شرکت نفت انگليس-پرشيا(APOC)
- Seyyed Abdolhossein Lari : سيد عبدالحسين لاري
- Constitutional Monarchy : سلطنت مشروطه
- Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri : شيخ فضل الله نوري
- Nematollah Boroujerdi : نعمت الله بروجردي
- William Knox D'Arcy : ويليام ناکس دارسي
- Mohammad Reza Shah : محمدرضا شاه(Mohammadreza Shah) شاهنشاه،آريامهر،پهلوي
- Mozaffaroddin Shah : مظفرالدينشاه
- Iranian Parliament : پارلمان ايران
- Mohammad Ali Shah : محمد علي شاه(Mohammadali Shah Ghajar)
- Saint Petersburg : سنت پترزبورگ پطرزبورگ
- Nezamossaltaneh : نظام السلطنه
- Minor Despotism : استبداد صغير
- Masjed Soleyman : مسجد سليمان(Masjed-e-Soleyman) تُلغُر
- Ommolkhaleghan : ام الخالقان
- Doshan Tappeh : دوشان تپه(Doshantappeh,Doshantepe)
- Fars Province : استان فارس(Persis)
- Minor Tyranny : استبداد صغير
- Salaroddoleh : سالارالدوله(Abolfath Mirza Salaroldoleh) ابوالفتح ميرزا سالارالدوله
- Mashrootiyat : مشروطيت
- Shah Cheragh : شاه چراغ
- Zellolsoltan : ظلالسلطان
- Qavamolmolk : قوام الملک
- Baharestan : بهارستان
- Parliament : پارلمان مجلس ، مجلس شورا
- Petersburg : پترزبورگ
- Azarbaijan : آذربايجان(Atriatkan,Azerbaijan)
- Bagheshah : باغ شاه(Bagheh-Shah) باغشاه
- Amirkabir : امير کبير(Atabak,Amir-e Nezam) ميرزا تقي خان فراهاني،اميرنظام،اتابک
- Reza Shah : رضا شاه(Sardar Sepah, Reza Gholdor) رضا خان
- Despotism : استبداد
- Liakhoff : لياخوف(Polkovnik Vladimir Platonovitch Liakhov) پالکونيک(سرهنگ) ولاديمير پلاتونويچ لياخوف
- Gulistan : گلستان(Golestan)
- Lorestan : لرستان
- Monarchy : شهرياري سلطنت مطلقه ، رژيم سلطنتي
- American : آمريكائي ينگه دنيائي
- Cossack : قزاق
- Iranian : ايراني اهل ايران ، وابستهبه ايران
- Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي
- Dynasty : دودمان ال، خاندان پادشاهان، سلسله
- Isfahan : اصفهان(Esfahan, Sepahan,Esparan) اسپه دانه، اسپهان
- Russian : روسي
- Cheragh : چراغ
- Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران
- Russia : روسيه
- Shiraz : شيراز تيرازيس
- Sheikh : شيخ(shaykh)
- Seyyed : سيّد(Seyed) سيد
- Abadan : آبادان
- Majlis : مجلس(Majles)
- Qajar : قاجار(Ghajar) قجر
- Gilan : گيلان
- Qavam : قوام
- Kazak : قزاق(Cossack)
- Paris : پاريس
- Iran : ايران
- Shah : شاه پادشاه
- Fars : فارس
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