The Iranian History 1910 AD


Sattar Khan And Bagher Khan Depart For Tehran

Mar, 19, 1910 AD

A poster showing Tehran conquest, a decisive victory for Constitutional Monarchy MovementWhen Tehran was liberated by Bakhtiari and Mojahedin of Gilan, Sattar Khan and other fighters had to seek refugee at the Ottoman embassy in Tabriz. Mokhberossaltaneh Hedayat who had become Azerbaijan governor could not get along with Sattar Khan, that's why he asked Sardar Bahador who had arrived in Azerbaijan to send him to Tehran. Sardar Bahador wrote to Sardar Asad explaining the situation.
After a while telegrams arrived from Azadolmolk, Sardar Asad, head of Majlis and other state authorities inviting Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan to Tehran.
Tabriz came under Russian occupation. Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan each heading 50 cavalries departed for Tehran. After their arrival on March, 26, 1910, the government gave them a place to stay and a salary to make a living. After a while, when the government insisted on disarmement of all groups, Sattar Khan supporters resisted the order and clashed with the army. 30 of Sattar Khan's men were killed and 300 arrested. Sattar Khan was humiliated. Four years later, Sattar Khan died under house arrest and his comrade Bagher Khan was killed in an ambush in Ghasreshirin in 1916.
Revolution eats her own children. (Updated: Oct, 6, 2009)

Newspapers Banned

May, 26, 1910 AD

The bodyguard of Persian Consulate 1910 USThe Prime Minister who was Ahmad Shah's regent ordered a ban on newspapers that criticized the government. The chief editors of these leftist publications were sent to court and some of them received jail terms. Ahmad Shah had not reached legal age, thus the country was ruled by the regent. Iran was in the middle of the constitutional revolution while the royal Qajar court, under foreign influence was absorbed in corruption.
In order to suppress public discontent, the newspapers were labeled as elements of foreign countries. The Qajar dynasty was overthrown by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 but the tradition of limiting press freedom has been present ever since. The Qajar Dynasty was replaced with a Pahlavi dictatorship.
The 1979 revolution that topple the Pahlavi regime brought hopes of freedom which gradually faded away with creation of an Oligarchy in which censorship is widely practiced in all forms of media including the press and the internet. (Updated: May, 26, 2009)

Shiraz Blood Libel

Oct, 30, 1910 AD

Qajar era Iranian Jews special gathering in front of Jewish (Kalimi) synagogue(Wikipedia) - The 1910 Shiraz blood libel was a pogrom of the Jewish quarter in Shiraz, Iran, on October 30, 1910, sparked by accusations that the Jews had ritually killed a Muslim girl. In the course of the pogrom, 12 Jews were killed and about 50 were injured, and 6,000 Jews of Shiraz were robbed of all their possessions. The event was documented by the representative of the Alliance Israélite Universelle in Shiraz.
In the beginning of October 1910, while cleaning the cesspools of a Jewish house in Shiraz, some scavengers claimed to have found an old book, some pages of which remained clean and were recognized as a part of the Quran. Then, on the first day of Sukkot, several Jews were coming home from a synagogue when they saw a veiled woman standing at the entrance of their house with a parcel. Seeing that she was noticed, the woman hurriedly threw the parcel into a cesspool (that were located near the front door in all Jewish houses) and ran away. The dwellers of the house promptly pulled out the parcel and found it to be a copy of the Quran. After being informed of this incident and fearing further provocations, the representative of the Alliance Israélite Universelle in the city contacted Mirza Ibrahim, the chief mufti of Shiraz, who promised to ignore the provocation and lend his assistance in case of need.
Allegations of ritual murder:
Next evening, a gang invaded the houses of the two chief rabbis of Shiraz. The intruders were accompanied by a bazaar merchant, who pretended that one of his children, a girl of four, had disappeared in the afternoon in the Jewish quarter, where, he claimed, she had been killed to obtain her blood. The frightened rabbis swore that they did not know that a child of Muslim parents had strayed into the Jewish quarter and protested against the accusation. The hooligans withdrew after threatening to put the entire Jewish quarter to fire and sword if the girl had not been found by noon the next day. On the same day, the body of a child was found one kilometer away from the city behind an abandoned palace, one hundred meters from the Jewish cemetery. A rumor spread that the body was that of the missing Muslim girl and that she had been killed by the Jews. Subsequently it was found out to be true.
The next morning, a crowd began to gather in front of the government palace; the people were accusing the Jews of murdering the girl and were vociferously demanding vengeance. The temporary governor ordered the troops to disperse the mob, and the crowd headed for the Jewish quarter, where they arrived simultaneously with the soldiers. The latter, contrary to the orders given to them, were the first to attack the Jewish quarters, giving the rest of the mob a signal to plunder. The pillage lasted for six to seven hours, not sparing a single one of 260 houses in the Jewish quarter. The representative of the Alliance Israélite Universelle thus described the robbing:
“ The thieves formed a chain in the street. They passed along the line carpets, bundles of goods, bales of merchandise, anything, in a word, which was salable. Anything, which did not have commercial value or which, on account of its weight or size, could not be carried off, was, in a fury of vandalism, destroyed and broken. The doors and windows of the houses were torn off their hinges and carried away or smashed to pieces. The rooms and cellars were literally ploughed up to see whether the substratum did not conceal some wealth. ”

The assailants did not limit themselves to robbery, but also engaged in physical violence against the Jews. As soon as their quarter was attacked, most Jews fled some finding refuge in the homes of their Muslim friends, others in the British consulate, on the terraces, and even in the mosques. Those few who stayed and tried to defend their properties were injured or killed. Twelve were killed in the mêlée, another fifteen were stabbed or hit with bludgeons or bullets, and a further forty sustained minor injuries.
As a result of the pogrom, the Jewish quarter was completely devastated:
“Women, men, and old folk are rolling in the dust, beating their chests and demanding justice. Others, plunged into a state of genuine stupor, appear to be unconscious and in the throes of an awful nightmare which won't end.”
Relief efforts were organized by the Alliance Israélite Universelle, assisted by the British Consulate. Some local Muslims helped too, distributing bread, grapes, and money. One wealthy Muslim sent a ton of bread, the governor sent two tons, and the chief mufti a further 400 kilograms.
Although authenticity of this event has not been verified by any Persian sources yet, such sectarian and inter-religion provocations from which certain people benefit are always controversial and the accounts are different on two sides of the story. (Updated: Sep, 14, 2012)

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