The Iranian History 1912 AD


British Telegram Changes Soviet Stance

Feb, 7, 1912 AD

Parade of Indian Cavalry in Shiraz 1912.Germany officially acknowledged Russian rights in northern Iran in the Potsdam Agreement signed on Aug, 19, 1911. However, there were some other items in the agreement that displeased Britain:
- Russia accepted not to support Britain against Germany.
- Russia supported construction of Berlin-Baghdad railway while Germans guaranteed not to connect it with Iran's railway without Russian approval.
There was a great pressure on Edward Grey who masterminded the 1907 treaty with Russia that divided Iran between two spheres of influence to revise relations with Germany as Germans had entered an international competition that posed a threat to British interests. Grey who was afraid of Germans, was left with no choice but to risk a diplomatic maneuver. He sent a telegram to British ambassador in Saint Petersburg giving the information that Britain planned to arrange a meeting at high level with Germany to revise relations addressing the fact that Russia and France had both reached agreements with Germans in Potsdam and Morocco respectively. This information was relayed to Russian authorities which forced them to revise their policies specially towards Iran where they were trying to reinstall Mohammad Ali Shah against Britain's will.
After losing Russian support, Mohammad Ali Shah accepted a yearly salary of 50,000 Tomans and leave the country forever. He left from Astarabad on Feb, 9, 1912 and never returned again. (Updated: Aug, 27, 2009)

Russians Bombard Imam Reza's Shrine

Mar, 30, 1912 AD

The Russian cannon bullet that penetrated the dome in Imam Reza Shrine in 1912, Mashhad MuseumThe Russian occupation forces attacked the shrine of Imam Reza in Mashhad which is considered the holiest place in Iran according to Shiite Muslims. During this attack parts of the building were destroyed and plundered. Some precious objects that had great historical value were stolen from the treasury inside the shrine while many pilgrims were martyred. According to some accounts 200 people were killed. Russians had based their attack on a secret treaty with Britain in 1917 that actually divided Iran between the two empires. This incident's significance rose because Iran was in the midst of a transitional political chaos that was called the conditional monarchy movement. Mohammad Ali Shah was dismissed from power and the future Shah was too young for the coronation ceremony while the parliament was dissolved.
Russians, willing to keep the corrupt Qajar family in power, reinforced their Cossack units and staged other attacks in major cities such as Tabriz showing their support for the outsted Qajar kings.
Ironically, hungry Russian workers and soldiers staged a coup in October same year occupying government buildings and strategic points. The tsarist Russia thus became history. The Russian bombing event entered Iranian history books as it was; as a reminder for those who currently rely their existence on brotherhood of bears. (Updated: Mar, 1, 2008)

Salaroddoleh Uprising

May, 6, 1912 AD

Fourteen year old Ahmad Mirza Shah Qajar Sahinshah (king of kings) at the head of his army 1912The fight between supporters of the conditional monarchy and the Qajar despots was heating up. The Qajar puppet kings who were supported by the Russians were trying to regain power. Salaroddoleh, son of Mozaffaroddin Shah proclaimed king and started a fierce fight against the new democratic movement of Iran. On May, 6, 1912, the government forces were defeated by Salaroddoleh and left the battlefield. The central government appointed the police chief Yeprem khan, from Armenian descent to counter the uprising but he was killed in the battlefield on May, 19th. Salaroddoleh continued fighting in western Iran for some years. (Updated: Aug, 18, 2009)

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