The Iranian History 1925 AD


Soviets Play Game Of Geography

Jan, 1, 1925 AD

1925 Ghashghayi tribe in their Winter tent hosting members of the oil CompanyThree years after Russia became the Soviet Union, it was announced that Marv, Bukhara and other northeastern regions of the greater Khorasan that were indeed the cradle of Persian culture, history, and literature were kept Tajiks in the Badakhshan region to be separated from mainland. The idea was to prevent the desire of people with the same culture to reunite. The USSR later announced creation of the Azerbaijan Republic in the Aran region of southern Caucasia. 65 years later, these regions declared independence thus rendering the Soviet calculations obsolete. On the other hand, as Georgia, Ukraine and Kirgizstan approach west, Russia is turning into a critical region of conflicts.
The Turkmenchai and Gulistan treaties enforced on the Iranian nation during Qajar dynasty separated Transcaucasia from Iran, although they do not have a legal stance right now. At present, the Iranian foreign diplomacy is living a very self observed period incapable to even guarantee the %50 share of the Caspian sea foreseen in those agreements. (Updated: Aug, 17, 2008)

First Fully Trained Iranian Pilots

Feb, 25, 1925 AD

Tehran Pahlavi era Doshantappeh airport a two wing airplane from 1930s. Iran Air Force was one of the top priority organizations, specially when young Mohammad Reza Shah got his pilot license from the chief commander of the IAF.(Wikipedia) - The Imperial Iranian Air Force (IIAF) was a branch of the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces and was established by Reza Shah, the Shah of Iran, in 1920. It became operational with its first fully trained pilots on February 25, 1925.
Iran's first attempt to procure aircraft from the United States in the 1920s failed due to Washington's refusal to supply equipment because of a World War I treaty. Until World War II, the IIAF's aircraft inventory consisted entirely of European (mainly British and German) aircraft. However, following a coordinated British and Soviet invasion of Iran during World War II in retaliation for Reza Shah's declaration of neutrality, the IIAF's bases were occupied by the allies and all existing IIAF aircraft were either destroyed or dismantled by the invading British.
After World War II, the IIAF began to slowly rebuild its inventory, with mainly American and British supplied aircraft. In the 1960s, the IIAF acquired 90 Canadair Sabre fighters from the RCAF, but they were flipped over to the Pakistan Air Force.
Later, in the 1970s, the IIAF became the only military force other than the United States Navy, to be equipped with the F-14 Tomcat. Although after the 1979 Iranian revolution, some of these planes were not in working order due to a lack of necessary spare parts, because of an American arms embargo and damage sustained on the aircraft during the Iraqi invasion (Iran–Iraq War). Some were brought back in to service, thanks to localized production of reverse-engineered, Iranian-made, spare parts.
Due to the continuous spare parts shortages faced by the air force, a decision was made in the late 1980s to develop a local aerospace industry to support the air force.
In 2002, with the co-operation of Ukraine, Iran successfully started manufacturing Iran-140; a license-built version of the Antonov An-140 transport aircraft. Simultaneously, Iran began construction of two 100% domestically produced fighters, upgraded using technology from the F-14 Tomcat and the F-5 Tiger II. The fighters have been named the Azarakhsh and the Shafaq.
Since then Iran has also become self-sufficient in the manufacturing helicopters.
Iran has also developed significant air defence capabilities which have proved to be a deterrent element against hostile states. Capture of an American spy drone in mint condition on December, 4, 2011 by Iranian forces near the city of Kashmar in northeastern Iran was such a disgrace for the US that they kept denying the incident for a long time. (Updated: May, 17, 2012)

Mohammad Ali Shah Dies In Italy

Apr, 5, 1925 AD

1900 Darvazeh Tehran Gate : One of many entrances to the cityMohammad Ali Shah of Qajar dynasty died in Italy at the age of 54. He had been diagnosed with diabetes. He ascended the throne after the death of his father Mozaffaroddin Shah. It was the peak of the public movement calling for Conditional Monarchy in Iran. However he could not cope with the turmoil and left Iran for Russia on Sep, 29, 1909. He then traveled to Europe and unwillingly started a new tradition: All Iranian kings after him died in exile.
Mohammad Ali Shah was a superstitious man. He used fortunetellers as advisors for decision-making. His mother, Tajolmolook Amirkabir's daughter had a great influence on him. His body was transported to Iraq buried in Karbala. (Updated: May, 28, 2009)

State Monopoly On Sugar

May, 22, 1925 AD

Mazandaran Savadkooh Veresk BridgeThe fifth Majlis approved a bill presented by the government creating state monopoly over trade of sugar. Reza Shah favored a centralized government with state control over essentials such as wheat, sugar, and tea. By exclusive control of such necessities in the market, he aimed at controlling production, import, sales and distribution and keeping the prices stable. This way, the state could face extreme cases such as possible famine caused by natural disasters or wars.
There's no doubt that the Qajar Dynasty had kept Iran backwards in every way and Reza Shah brought peace and security to the country that was necessary for development.
In 1938, he completed Trans-Iranian Railway, a very big project which was financed by people; imposing a small tax on tea and sugar created necessary funds for construction of the state-of-the-art project.
State monopoly in this manner may be useful in systems that are transparent. On the other hand, there are many cases of failure where such monopolies have led to creation of mafia and power groups inside government ranks that take over the political decision making centers gradually. A systematic audit by independent NGO's, public access to information alongside free media are basic elements for success of such a system. (Updated: May, 27, 2009)

The Qajar Dynasty Overthrown

Dec, 12, 1925 AD

Reza Khan seen with his children Shams, Ashraf and Mohammad Reza. Reza Khan's second wife Tajolmolouk gave birth to four children.Reza Khan had seized power on Oct, 26, 1923 and Ahmad Shah, the last Qajar king was forced to exile. On Oct, 31, 1925 Tadayyon, the vice president of Majlis presented a draft to abolish the Qajar Dynasty and choose Reza Khan as the interim head of the state. The draft was approved on Dec, 12, 1925 and 200 years of Qajar rule came to an end.
Then the parliament convened as constituent assembly approved Reza Khan as king. During the next session Reza Khan was present to take the imperial oath and thus began the Pahlavi dynasty.
The coronation ceremony took place on Apr, 25, 1926 during which his son Mohammad Reza was named crown prince. A debate had been going on either choosing republic as the form of government that was objected by landlords and prominent politicians. Reza Shah himself was in favor of republic which was regime accepted in Turkey by Mustafa Kamal Ataturk who was his close friend. The Qajar dynasty had started in 1794. (Updated: Jan, 26, 2008)

English-Persian Glossary
  • Conditional Monarchy : سلطنت مشروطه
  • Iranian Revolution : انقلاب ايران(1979 Revolution,Islamic Revolution) Media_Files
  • Mozaffaroddin Shah : مظفرالدين‌شاه Media_Files
  • Mohammad Ali Shah : محمد علي شاه(Mohammadali Shah Ghajar) Media_Files
  • Iranian Air Force : نيروي هوايي ايران(IAF,IRIAF,The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force) نيروي هوايي ارتش جمهوري اسلامي ايران،نهاجا Media_Files
  • Pahlavi Dynasty : سلسله پهلوي
  • Canadair Sabre : کاناداير سيبر
  • United States : ايالات متحده
  • Iran–Iraq War : جنگ ايران و عراق Media_Files
  • Transcaucasia : قفقاز جنوبي
  • World War II : جنگ جهاني دوم(Second World War) Media_Files
  • Soviet Union : اتحاديه جماهير شوروي
  • Turkmenchai : ترکمن چاي(Torkmanchay,Turkmenchay,Torkamanchai) Media_Files
  • Caspian Sea : درياي کاسپين Media_Files
  • Tajolmolook : تاج الملوک(Tajolmoluk) Media_Files
  • World War I : جنگ جهاني اول Media_Files
  • Badakhshan : بدخشان
  • Kirgizstan : قرقزستان(Qirgizestan)
  • Ahmad Shah : احمد شاه(Ahmad Shah Qajar) احمد شاه قاجار Media_Files
  • Azerbaijan : آذربايجان(Atropatene) Media_Files
  • Washington : واشنگتن Media_Files
  • Azarakhsh : آذرخش
  • Reza Khan : رضاخان Media_Files
  • Wikipedia : ويکي پديا
  • Amirkabir : امير کبير(Atabak,Amir-e Nezam) ميرزا تقي خان فراهاني،اميرنظام،اتابک Media_Files
  • Reza Shah : رضا شاه(Sardar Sepah, Reza Gholdor) رضا خان Media_Files
  • Gulistan : گلستان(Golestan) Media_Files
  • Khorasan : خراسان(Khorassan) Media_Files
  • Pakistan : پاکستان Media_Files
  • Monarchy : شهرياري سلط‌نت‌ مط‌لقه‌ ، رژيم‌ سلط‌نتي‌
  • American : آمريكائي‌ ينگه‌ دنيائي‌ Media_Files
  • Caucasia : قفقاز(Kafkas,Kafkasia)
  • Iran-140 : ايران-140 Media_Files
  • Ukraine : اوکراين
  • Karbala : کربلا کربلاي معلي Media_Files
  • Ataturk : آتاتورک Media_Files
  • Bukhara : بخارا(Bokhara)
  • Iranian : ايراني‌ اهل‌ ايران‌ ، وابسته‌به‌ ايران‌ Media_Files
  • Persian : فارسي(Farsi,Parsi) ايراني پارسي Media_Files
  • Dynasty : دودمان ال، خاندان پادشاهان، سلسله Media_Files
  • Kashmar : کاشمر Media_Files
  • Georgia : گرجستان Media_Files
  • Antonov : آنتونوف
  • Caspian : کاسپين(Caspian Sea, Mazandaran, Khazar Sea) بحر خزر، درياي مازندران Media_Files
  • British : انگليسي Media_Files
  • Pahlavi : پهلوي(Pahlevi) Media_Files
  • Russia : روسيه Media_Files
  • Soviet : شوروي Media_Files
  • Shafaq : شفق
  • Turkey : ترکيه Media_Files
  • German : آلماني Media_Files
  • Majlis : مجلس(Majles) Media_Files
  • Qajar : قاجار(Ghajar) قجر Media_Files
  • Italy : ايتاليا Media_Files
  • Iraqi : عراقي
  • Armed : مسلح Media_Files
  • F-14 : اف-14 Media_Files
  • IIAF : نيروي هوايي شاهنشاهي ايران Imperial Iran Air Force Media_Files
  • Iraq : عراق(Al Aragh) Media_Files
  • USSR : اتحاد جماهير شوروي(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)) Media_Files
  • Khan : خان Media_Files
  • Marv : مرو(Merv) Media_Files
  • Iran : ايران Media_Files
  • Aran : آران
  • Shah : شاه پادشاه‌ Media_Files
  • F-5 : اف-5 Media_Files
  • NGO : موسسات غير دولتي
  • US : ايالات متحده Media_Files

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