The Iranian History 1937 AD


Iran Withdraws Minister From Paris

Jan, 18, 1937 AD

Qajar diplomats Musa Nuri-esfandiari (Iran’s Ambassador to Berlin), Hossein Esfandiari AKA Mohtashamossaltaneh Majlis Speaker meet with Adof Hitler in Berlin in 1937. Mohtashamossaltaneh was on the way to attend coronation of George VI of EnglandOn Jan, 18, 1937, shortly after cutting diplomatic ties with the U.S., Iran withdrew the Minister Plenipotentiary from Paris because of a pun, as a French newspapers had published photographs of a Paris cat labeled 'Son Majeste le Chat!' meaning his majesty the cat. The word for cat in French reads very similar to the word Shah in Persian meaning king. However, it took two years for the French government to persuade the Shah that he was not being ridiculed, and normal relations were re-established on Feb. 21, 1939.
French newspapers had started mocking the Ahmad Shah of Persia for his irresponsible behaviors in French Riviera while Iran was living in turmoil. Ahmad Shah, the last king of the Qajar dynasty was soon toppled and replaced by Reza Khan after a British backed coup in 1921. Reza Shah who declared himself Shahanshah (king of kings) and later refused to lend Iranian art objects to the Paris International Exhibition in May, 1937 thus giving an international signal that he wanted to see some respect.
Although he was not educated, Reza Shah is known to have been a smart man with vision and determinacy. (Updated: May, 10, 2008)

Parliament Ratifies Amiranian Deal

Feb, 4, 1937 AD

Site of Iranian oil refineries in Khuzestan provinceTen years after first attempts by American companies to enter the Iranian petroleum market, as they were challenged by Britain and Russia; the Sinclair Company was forced to leave Iran for good. In 1933, a new contract with the British South Oil company limited the operation domain of that company to 100,000 square Miles and exclusive rights to construction of pipelines to the Persian Gulf were taken back; thus opening the way for a subdivision of the American Seaboard company to gain exploration rights to East and Northeast oil reserves of Iran.
A letter sent by the Charge d'Affaires in Iran to the US Secretary of State on Jan, 21, 1937, expressed worries about possible US publications that could jeopardize the accepted concessions before ratification by Parliament representatives adding that Reza Shah was sensitive to printed words, obviously referring to a recent recall of the Iranian Minister at Paris after a French press articles mocked the word Shah on Jan, 18, 1937.
The deal with this company which was founded as American-Iranian or Amiranian Oil Company for a period of sixty years was ratified by the parliament on Feb, 2, 1937. Amiranian Co. also gained non-exclusive rights to construct pipelines to the Persian Gulf by Iranian Pipeline Company operating under Seaboard Co. However, after doing some research in the region, Amiranian Co. informed the Iranian government that it was terminating the contract.
On Aug, 30, 1941 while occupying the Iranian soil, the Soviets sent a note to Iran asking permission to oil exploration in the Khurian Desert referencing the 1921 Iran-USSR agreement. The Iranian government in a letter on Sep, 1 replied that there was no item related to Khurian Oil in that agreement but added that Iranians were ready to negotiate if Soviets were willing to discuss an agreement on that issue. This was an indication of Iranians better understanding of International politics and trade rules. Until 1946, the USSR used all means to get a concession from the Iranian government under the name North Oil which was in fact a pretext for an unwanted Soviet presence that would lead to separation of Northern provinces from Iran. (Updated: Feb, 13, 2009)

Saadabad Treaty Signed

Jul, 8, 1937 AD

Legendary Kiani Hero Arash the Archer in Saadabad complex of Tehran. The amazing figures that decorated the Iranian history of bravery and manhood are intensively becoming themes of movies, 3D games, digital arts and animations.Upon an initiative from the British government, Iran was somehow forced to sign a non-agression treaty with Turkey, Iraq, and Afghanistan in Saadabad Palace north of Tehran. Pakistan did not exist at the time. The main reason behind this treaty was to make it impossible for Iran to reclaim Afghanistan and the region east of Tigris river which had always been part of Iran.
Britain had invaded Afghanistan twice in the 19th century but was unable to fully subdue the country, and the third war in 1919 led to its full independence. A year after a civil war in 1978, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan supporting the communist government against a coalition of Islamic insurgents. The regime was toppled in 1992. Supported by American bases in Pakistan, a group of fighters known as the Taliban took control of most of the country by 1996. In 2001, the U.S. overthrew the Taliban for supporting international terrorism. Both Afghanistan and Iraq are currently under occupation. (Updated: Feb, 13, 2009)

Majlis Eleventh Term Begins

Sep, 11, 1937 AD

Soldiers look on Shah's MercedesThe 11th Majlis term started on Sep, 11, 1937.
Iran had entered a fast pace of progress. Reza Shah's risky steps including withdrawing minister from Paris and Washington and insisting that Iran shall not be called Persia in international documents earned him respect as a patriotic person who cared for his country. Although Iran declared neutrality in World War I, employing German experts as advisors in different industries was used as a pretext to pressure Iran.
Majlis passed the law related to formation of the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of Industry and Census Office.
Also known as Saadabad Treaty, a non-aggression pact between Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey and Iraq that was negotiated in the tenth term which was ratified by the 11th Majlis.
Majlis 11th term ended on Sep, 18, 1939. (Updated: May, 28, 2009)

Iran Ships Opium To Japan

Dec, 29, 1937 AD

1900 Meydan Sepah SquareAt the League of Nations, the Chinese representative, submits a complaint accusing Japan of importing tens of tons of opium from Iran and distributing it in China. The claim was backed by documents showing that 109 tons of raw opium was shipped from Iran on Dec, 29 followed by a shipment of 82 tons in March, 17, 1938 from Bushehr port. Japan was accused of selling Iranian opium to the Chinese in order to help pay for the war with China !
Iran was turned into a vast market for opium as a part of colonial policy to keep people pacified while their wealth was being stolen. The colonists not only distributed opium for free but they also helped with the know-how of growing poppy. Moreover, the burnt leftover of opium after smoking was bought back from addicts in order to make them think they're generating some sort of income.
On the other hand, growing real necessities in Iran was not that easy. Kashefossaltaneh succeeded in smuggling tea seeds into Iran by hiding them inside his walking stick after being caught several times by the British border guards. It's been claimed that his death in a traffic accident was actually caused by a bullet in his head. (Updated: Jun, 24, 2008)

English-Persian Glossary

Latest Additions to Iranian History Chronicle: