The Iranian History 1969 AD


Iran Breaks Ties With Lebanon

Apr, 2, 1969 AD

Pahlavi General Teimur Bakhtiar in uniforms. He was a high ranking military officer in Shah's regime who served as the head of SAVAK, governor of Tehran, and head of Imperial Guards before being dismissed.In protest to Lebanon's refusal to extradite Teimur Bakhtiar, Iran broke ties with Lebanon.
Born in 1914 in Isfahan, Teimur Bakhtiar studied in Beirut together with Shapour Bakhtiar until he was admitted to a French military academy in 1933. Two years later, he returned to Iran and served as captain in Zahedan. During the WWII, he was dispatched to Isfahan. He became a colonel after active participation in battles against Russian backed separatists in Azerbaijan.
As the head of the Imperial Guards, he played an important role in the CIA backed coup in 1953, after which he became the military governor of Tehran. He became Iran's youngest three-star general in 1954 and was appointed as the head of Shah's notorious secret service, SAVAK in 1958. His luck did not last long when Shah dismissed him on March, 15, 1961, appointing General Pakravan as the new head of SAVAK.
Teimur Bakhtiar left Iran on Jan, 6, 1961 for France. His properties were confiscated. Bakhtiar retaliated by establishing contacts with Iranian dissidents abroad. That was indeed the source of Iran's political row with Lebanon. He was accused of serious charges including smuggling of arms, alongside injuring a cab driver in Tehran. Therefore, Iran broke diplomatic relations with Lebanon on April, 2, 1969 and refused permission to a Lebanese passenger jet to land at Mehrabad Airport on April, 7. Shah was showing his teeth.
Shortly after seeking refuge in Iraq, It did not come as surprise when Teimur Bakhtiar was assassinated near Baghdad on Aug, 7, 1970. There are many speculations about his assassin and his fate but Mohammad Reza Shah was himself quoted as claiming the assassination a personal success.
Shah's second wife, Queen Sorayya and his last prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar were relatives of Teimur Bakhtiar.
On Sep, 18, 1971, Iran-Lebanon relations became normal with the arrival of the new Lebanese Ambassador to Tehran. (Updated: Nov, 16, 2009)

Iran Claims Her Share Of Arvand River

Apr, 24, 1969 AD

Shiraz Quran Gate 1969/ Photograph from Qajar era.Two precious Qurans written by Shahrokh Gurkani, known to weight Hefdah-man used to be kept at the small room on top for blessing to passengers.During the Mandate of Iraq (1920-32), the British advisors in Iraq were able to keep the Arvand Rood waterway bi-national under the principle that worked in Europe for Danube River: the dividing line was a line drawn between the deepest points along the stream bed. In 1937, Iran and Iraq signed a treaty that settled the dispute over control of the Arvand Rood. The 1937 treaty recognized the Iranian-Iraqi border as along the low-water mark on the eastern side of the Arvand Rood except at Abadan and Khorramshahr where the frontier ran along the Thalweg (the deep water line) which gave Iraq control of almost the entire waterway; provided that all ships using the Arvand Rood fly the Iraqi flag and have an Iraqi pilot, and required Iran to pay tolls to Iraq whenever its ships used the Arvand Rood.
By the late 1960s, the build-up of Iranian power under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi led Iran to take a more assertive stance in the Near East. In April 1969, Iran abrogated the 1937 treaty over the Arvand Rood, and as such, Iran ceased paying tolls to Iraq when its ships used the Arvand Rood. The Shah justified his move by arguing that almost all river borders all over the world ran along the thalweg, and by claiming that because most of the ships that used the Arvand Rood were Iranian, the 1937 treaty was unfair to Iran.
Iraq threatened war over the Iranian move, but when on 24 April 1969 an Iranian tanker escorted by Iranian warships sailed down the Arvand River, Iraq being the militarily weaker state did nothing. The Iranian abrogation of the 1937 treaty marked the beginning of a period of acute Iraqi-Iranian tension that was to last until the Algiers Treaty of 1975. (Updated: Oct, 17, 2011)

Ten Drug Dealers Executed

Dec, 26, 1969 AD

Iranian Protester Akbar Amini on top of a crane in Tehran on Feb, 14, 2011. The significance of his protest was high as it sparked demonstations accross Tehran. The crane has been used for executions in Iran to hang people and show it off in public.Ten drug dealers were executed in Tehran after their verdict was reluctantly signed by Mohammad Reza Shah.
Iran's vigorous police campaign began 14 years before, when health officials discovered to their alarm that 1 out of 10 Iranians was an addict. In some villages such as Sabzevar where they grew poppies, almost everybody above the age of five smoked opium. Over the years, a government crackdown against poppy growing reduced Iran's addicts however, smugglers began bringing in opium from neighboring Afghanistan, and the number of addicts rose to 250,000 in 1968.
As a result, the government last July prescribed death by firing squad for anyone convicted of possessing more than two kilograms of opium or ten grams of heroin, morphine or cocaine.
Part of the problem is that Iran is a major hub for drug smugglers.
After the Revolution of 1979 despite expectations from an Islamic country, Iran ranks high in drug abuse, while the United States continues to be the largest consumer of illegal drugs in the world, consequently because of neighboring or occupying the world's largest opium producer: Afghanistan.
On Sep, 19, 2011, an Iranian newspaper announced that authorities have hanged 22 people convicted of drug trafficking. The executions were carried out Sunday in Tehran Evin prison as well as a prison in the city of Karaj.
Iran has become a leading figure in combating drug trafficking; so far Iranian authorities have made over 85 percent of the world's total opium seizures. Between 2009 and 2010, the amount of illicit drugs seized by Iranian police totaled over 340 tons. The question is who can distribute that huge amount of smuggled drugs and goods in Iran?
In a televised speech on July, 2, 2011 the Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad pointed out that the smuggling brothers; clearly referring to influential people in IRGC had a hand in smuggling goods through unsupervised ports. He added that they had each created a hole somewhere bringing in whatever they wanted.
Crimes that are punishable by death penalty in Iran include drug trafficking, murder, rape, armed robbery and kidnapping. Nonetheless spies, Bahais, political activists and minors have been executed occasionally. (Updated: Sep, 20, 2011)

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